Psychodynamic model of abnormality- the Oral, Anal and Phallic stages of development. Freud suggested that psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of stages that occur throughout fixed periods of time, his theory suggests children develop though psychosexual stages which involve conflict which must be resolved. The Oral stage:
This is the first stage of development which occurs at the age of 0-1 years. In this stage the mouth is the source of pleasure for the libido, at this age babies tend to gain comfort by doing things such as biting and chewing toys, breastfeeding etc. Feud also believed that oral stimulation could lead to oral fixation later on in life, for example behaviours such as smoking, biting nails etc. The Anal stage:
This stage of development occurs at the age of 1-3 years. The child is now aware that their wishes and needs can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world indicating that an ego has developed. In this stage the libido is focused on the anal source of pleasure, conflict tends to come to a head in potty training when parent’s restrictions and going to the toilet in the right place at the right time are imposed on the child, Freud believed over strictness about forcing the child during potty training and cleanliness can cause anal fixation and obsessive behaviour later on in life. The Phallic stage:
This stage of development occurs at the age of 3-6 years. Feud suggested that at this stage children become aware of their genitals and the libido is focused on this idea, suggesting that the child becomes aware of emotions such as jealousy, rivalry and fear and erotic attraction. This stage also focuses on the Oedipus and Complex’s. These behavioural types of development were suggested by Freud, the Oedipus complex which focuses on boy’s behaviour and desire to parents, and the Electra complex focussing on girl’s behaviour and desire towards parents.
The Oedipus complex: Freud suggested that during the phallic stage young boys and girls go through a stage of desire for their parents, the Oedipus complex outlines the idea that boys develop strong desire for mother, they then Notice a strong bond between parents and Become jealous of father and afraid of the father who might discover the boys true feelings and fearing the punishment of castration is Resolved by identifying with the father. The Electra complex:
During the stages of this complex Freud suggested that briefly, the girl desires the father but discovers she does not have a penis which leads to penis envy she then blames mother for her lack and transfer’s love from mother to father, the feelings are then repressed and Resolved by the girl Identifying with mother to become like her.
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