Task 1. – Promotion Plan / Identify an audience for the promotion Identify an audience for the promotion. Consider all the promotional activities included in this course and assess their suitability for the proposed audience, using relevant information sources to ensure the activities are culturallyappropriate and are compatible with your institution’s requirements 1. 1 Objective/s (of promotion plan).
As our educational Institution (Australia Business Financial Institution; ABFI) excels in delivering the best quality learning and skilling to overseas students, we are seeking to lead Australian provider of business studies training for overseas students within the next five years. However, during coming 2 years, we are aiming students from Pacific Asian region specifically East Asia – the Republic of Korea, Japan and China. to ensure of success in those market, we will – Establish relationships with authorities in each country, starting from Korea, Japan then China.
– Set up close partnerships with specialised (vocational) high schools so the ABFI have chance to present the educational training and future opportunities. – Participate ‘education trade fairs’ – at least 2 times – in Korea before opening international Branch there. – Attract students to the conference/trade fairs, to ensure that they stay longer, enjoy the experience and return again for exploration. – Develop service & product that express our passion, meet potential market consumer/students’ needs and produce a sustainable economic reality.
– Provide Flexible study options – Correspondence, Online, Recognition of Prior Learning rather than face to face – for international students that allow them to have brief trial, idea of studying, and experience of studying abroad. 1. 2 Product The ABFI is a higher education provider registered by the Australian Government (CRICOS provider 012345D). We offers Degree programs at undergraduate and postgraduate level in Business and Accounting and is a registered provider of the Professional Year Program – Skilled Migration Internship Program in Accounting (SMIPA).
To appeal Korean students the excellent results of ABFI’s practical education and useful qualifications which is to enter job market or the pathway to universities, we will promote a) Undergraduate • Diploma of Business • Bachelor of Business d) Postgraduate • Graduate Certificate in Accounting • Graduate Diploma of Accounting • Master of Professional Accounting • Master of professional Accounting and Business
To ease the current skills shortage in accountants, SMIPA has been co-initiated by the Department of immigration and Citizenship (DIAC) and three professional accounting bodies – the institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia, CPA Australia and the institute of Public Accountants. Also the benefits of leaving and learning in Australia are both personal and academic. Years in Australia will give students the best platform to succeed in their career, and prepare them for the challenges of the work place. It won’t just be the mind that develops – time in the classroom will change students as a person.
Promote products and services to international markets: Task 1 – P. 2 1. 3 Target Market:? a) Target Market Choice 1 Korea has developed master plan of ‘lifelong vocational skills’ which is to promote an essential skill for performing a job continually. It includes vocational development training, curriculums, media development, research and investigation for that. However, there are limited opportunities to practice required skills for international market needs – broader occupation-specific and transferable skill – ABFI sees the possibility to settle in Korea.
Besides, huge percentage of Korean students tend to go high education during work therefore the postgraduate courses – which aim specific fields with potential immigration needs – will appeal to Korean students. b) Demographics Korea values excellent education for better opportunities in future life, relying on hugely private sector though. There exists clear evidence that show amount of money Korean household spend on education in each level of study.
The evidences are 2 • Average monthly education expenses per household, – Average monthly educational expenses amounted to 494 thousand won for the last year (June 20th, 2003 to June 19th, 2004), which increased by 123 thousand won (33. 2 percent) from 371 thousand won in 2000. – 20. 2 percent, the largest proportion, spent 400? 600 thousand won. This was followed by 200? 300 thousand won (15. 0 percent), 100? 200 thousand won (13. 7 percent), 300? 400 thousand won (13. 7 percent), and 600? 800 thousand won (11. 5 percent). 10. 1 percent spent more than 1,000 thousand won.
• Details of average monthly educational expenses per household – As for the details of the average monthly educational expenses of the last year, ? supplemental educational fee? accounted for 47. 0 percent, which amounted to 232 thousand won. People spent 175 thousand won on? tuition fee? , 31 thousand won on? board and lodging? , and 55 thousand won on? others?. • Financial burden and its reasons of educational expenses – 77. 2 percent responded that educational expenses were burdensome. This proportion grew by 4. 7 percentage point from 72. 5 percent in 2000. – ? Supplemental educational fee?
was found to be the most burdensome, which occupied 64. 6 percent. This was followed by? tuition fee? (30. 9 percent), ? charges for board, lodging, and dormitory? (2. 4 percent), and? teaching materials? (1. 7 percent). These showed fees for institutes and private tutoring were very burdensome. Table 1. Average monthly expenditures per student and Private education expenditures Average monthly expenditures per student (10 thousand won, %) Classification 2007 Elementary school Middle school High school General high school Vocational high school Total 2008 Percenta ge Change 6.
6 3. 0 4. 6 3. 7 3. 0 5. 0 2009 Percenta ge Change 1. 2 7. 9 5. 3 8. 0 -13. 0 3. 9 Average monthly expenditures per private education participation student (10 thousand won, %) 2007 2008 Percenta ge Change 7. 8 5. 7 7. 5 5. 9 14. 6 7. 6 2009 Percentag e Change 1. 8 5. 4 4. 7 4. 1 0. 9 4. 2 22. 7 23. 4 19. 7 24. 0 6. 7 22. 2 24. 2 24. 1 20. 6 24. 9 6. 9 23. 3 24. 5 26. 0 21. 7 26. 9 6. 0 24. 2 25. 6 31. 4 35. 9 38. 8 19. 8 28. 8 27. 6 33. 2 38. 6 41. 1 22. 7 31. 0 28. 1 35. 0 40. 4 42. 8 22. 9 32. 3 Promote products and services to international markets: Task 1 – P. 3.
Total private education expenditures (100 million won, %) Classification 2007 102,098 56,120 42,181 38,655 3,526 200,400 2008 104,307 58,135 46,652 42,973 3,679 209,095 Percentage Change 2. 2 3. 6 10. 6 11. 2 4. 3 4. 3 2009 102,309 62,656 51,294 47,853 3,441 216,259 Percentage Change -1. 9 7. 8 10. 0 11. 4 -6. 5 3. 4 Elementary school Middle school High school General high school Vocational high school Total – The total private education expenditures of elementary, middle and high school students amounted to 21,600 billion won in 2009, which increased by 3. 4 percent from 20,900 billion won in 2008.
– The average monthly private education expenditures per student marked 242 thousand won in 2009, up 3. 9 percent from 233 thousand won in 2008. • Lifelong learning – Social beings who had taken part in lifelong learning recorded 21. 6 percent. This figure grew by 4. 4 percentage point from 17. 2 percent in 2000. – Out of the total participants, 49. 9 percent attended? training in a workplace?. 21. 3 percent participated in? a cultural course?. 21. 2 percent took part in? a course on TV, radio or Internet?. The composition of? training in a workplace? and? a cultural course? increased compared with 2000. – 58.
7 percent of social beings wanted to take lifelong learning in the future. Out of them, 43. 1 percent and 23. 0 percent wanted to take a course related to computers and languages, respectively. 14. 3 percent wanted to take a course related to culture. And 6. 5 percent wanted to take a general vocational training. c) Cultural Considerations Korea now fields one of the most highly educated and skilled workforces in the world, a workforce that now staffs at every level some of the world’s leading consumer electronics companies, automobile manufacturers and builders of giant super tankers and container ships.
No doubt Korea’s brand of Confucianism, with its values of hard work, reverence for education, frugality and strong family structure helped, but those values had been part of the culture for a couple of millennia and cannot by themselves explain what happened. 3 For a long time, specialised high schools plays a critical role in supplying the skilled workforce necessary for sustaining the rapid economic growth Figure 1. Estimated Student Enrolments in General and Vocational High Schools and development in Korea and had 1600 1572 begun in the 1960s.
At the same time, 1472 1455 the Korean economy was largely 1324 1200 dependent on labor-intensive intensive 1132 industries, and the labor market 933 811 800 demanded workers who could perform 764 747 very simple tasks. However, as Korea 497 entered the new millennium with its 400 368 315 275 economy evolving and industries 232 converging, the labor force structure 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 also evolved. Businesses now need General HS Vocational HS more skilled technicians, also capable Promote products and services to international markets: Task 1 – P. 4. of managing the workplace, rather than just someone who takes care of a simple step in the assembly process.
This also implies that the demand for cognitive skills is rising while demand for physical and sensory skills is declining. 4 As this does not mean, however, that the skills requirements will continue to rise indefinitely (which would limit employment opportunities only to the highly skilled), the mainstay of the industrial workforce will continue to consist of skilled mid-level technical workers –a demand which could be satisfied by the secondary vocational schools. 1. 4 Promotional Technique/s • Advertising.
Advertising is a paid form of communication. It is non-personal in the sense that it is not specifically targeted at individuals and it utilises the mass media (television, radio, billboards, and online print) to communicate benefits and messages with regard to the product on organisation. Advertising has the benefit of having a low cost per audience member, but this is balanced by the fact that the message may be delivered to people who have no intention of actually buying the product (essentially causing wasted dollars). – Print advertising such as that in programs for events, trade journals, magazines, newspapers.
– Producing and distributing materials (Brochures, Newsletters, Flyers, Posters, etc. ) – Direct mail – Outdoor advertising, such as billboards and bus boards – Broadcast advertising on radio and TV (or internet site) – Tradeshows/Fairs – the product or service might be one that is suited to exhibiting at a trade fairs attended by target audience. Trade shows are typically one – or two – day events that allow businesses to set up exhibits or booths showcasing their products or capabilities – Coupons and Free trial samples – Conducting contests – Give-aways (like ball-point pens, baseball caps and mugs with school logo) • Public Relations.
Public relations involve developing positive relationships with the public. This relationship is quite broadly defined, but often comes about through receiving favourable publicity in the media. Getting good stories about the organisation into the local press is excellent public relations. Another very important aspect of the role of publicity- how do you deal with negative attention being given to the brand or a crisis occurring such as a death involving our product or injury, or a product recall. These aspects of promotion require careful use of public relations techniques.
– Sponsorships for special events – Participation in community projects and boards of directors – Public Speaking and conferences; making speeches at conferences, professional association meeting s and other events positions the company as a leader in our field. Attending conferences is also an opportunity to make valuable contacts that lead to sales. • Online Marketing Today, people are working, shopping, taking classes and playing on-line. It only makes sense that they would also be looking for studying on-line.
To be effective today, our marketing strategy must include an on-line presence, whether we are a small child care business or a multi-million dollar corporation. Though every provider should have a website to promote their business, even if they do have one, unless they are also listed in on-line provider directories, it is highly unlikely that parents will ever find their website in search engines. I recommend listing our child care program in as many of these on-line directories as possible. Many are Promote products and services to international markets: Task 1 – P.
5 free, some charge a fee, and others charge varying fees, depending on what type of listing you purchase. a) Effectiveness • Advertising ; Producing Poster & advertising brochure ; Well placed and presented advertisement will keep people’s attention; even lead words spread, and encourage people to make initial inquiries. By continuous exposure the centre could get people remembering the centre name, location unique selling points of the centre • Advertising in regional or local newspapers. • Displaying posters, in-store promotions, conducting mail drops.
• Advertising in professional/industry journals, visiting trade shows and attending exhibitions. • Public Relations; Information for local service to build up friendly Reputation ; A campaign is our overall plan for contacting and staying in touch with targeted members of the media (reporters). We want to develop a media relations campaign if it would benefit the company to be mentioned in newspaper, magazine or TV broadcasts viewed by our target customers. Developing press kits and public service announcements could be included in our media relations campaign.
• • • • Greeting and talking to potential customers on the street. Development of networks and strategic alliances with other organisations. Getting involved in community projects and or sponsorship. Public speaking and conference b) Financial Performance: • Public Relations; Information for local service to build up friendly Reputation ; Once the company build up rapport with media there would be no cost to be paid as we provide positive information through the media. • Greeting and talking to potential customers on the street.
• Development of networks and strategic alliances with other organisations. • Getting involved in community projects and or sponsorship. • Online Marketing; Cost effective pathway to spread information – Online Marketing ; As the most cost effective way to promote the service Internet is essential pathway to meet potential customers’ need to know. Besides well organised promotional initiatives and online strategy will make the significant distinctions along with other strategies. • Online advertising and website promotions. • Registration in searching engine c) Objectives.
Promotion can be used for a number of reasons. For example, promotional activity can increase sales, raise awareness or concerns about particular issues, develop a brand image or alter public opinion. The possible objectives for marketing promotions may include the following: Promote products and services to international markets: Task 1 – P. 6 Offline Advertising; Producing Poster & advertising brochure and attending trade fairs/shows Main Objectives Create Interest – Moving a customer from awareness of a product to making a purchase can present a significant challenge.
As we saw with our discussion of consumer and business buying behavior, customers must first recognize they have a need before they actively start to consider a purchase. The focus on creating messages that convince customers that a need exists has been the hallmark of marketing for a long time with promotional appeals targeted at basic human characteristics such as emotions, fears, sex, and humor. Actions/Outcome to be followed – Hold & reward 100 visitors in Trade fairs – Entice students to come open day/trial lessons – Lure customers away from competitor’s services – Get parents to ‘put name’ on waiting list.
Public Relations; Information for local service to build up friendly Reputation Main Objectives Provide Information – Some promotion is designed to assist customers in the search stage of the purchasing process. In some cases, such as when a product is so novel it creates a new category of product and has few competitors, the information is simply intended to explain what the product is and may not mention any competitors. In other situations, where the product competes in an existing market, informational promotion may be used to help with a product positioning strategy.
As we discuss in the Targeting Markets tutorial, marketers may use promotional means, including direct comparisons with competitor’s products, in an effort to get customers to mentally distinguish the marketer’s product from those of competitors. Actions/Outcome to be followed – Participation to local events as a member of sponsors. – Persuading local community centres and libraries to keep posting the centre information/news/events on information wall. – Providing informative articles in local newsletters.
Releasing positive image through media-release and publishing on local Newspaper, council letters Online Marketing; Cost effective pathway to spread information Main Objectives Stimulate Demand – The right promotion can drive customers to make a purchase. In the case of products that a customer has not previously purchased or has not purchased in a long time, the promotional efforts may be directed at getting the customer to try the product. This is often seen on the Internet where software companies allow for free demonstrations or even free downloadable trials of their products.
For products with an established customer-base, promotion can encourage customers to increase their purchasing by providing a reason to purchase products sooner or purchase in greater quantities than they normally do. For example, a pre-holiday newspaper advertisement may remind customers to stock up for the holiday by purchasing more than they typically purchase during non-holiday periods. Actions/Outcome to be followed – Building up regular e-mail sending system to inform changes of centre, up-coming events, etc.
– Building up effective feedback categories; enrolling note, leaving notes, and any parents input in terms of everyday centre curriculum. – Organising students support group through webpage activities. – Collecting feedback from students/potential customers – Encouraging students to befriend in web page – Checking up percentage of e-mail receiving – Counting number of visiting web-page/page views 1. 5 Action Plan. The service can determine how much to spend on promotion several different ways.
The percent of sales method, in which companies use a set percentage of sales for their promotion, is often the easiest method to use. As Small service we may focus on what we can afford while other organizations may try to keep their promotions relatively equal to their competitors’. The objective and task approach takes objectives into consideration and the costs of the tasks necessary to accomplish objectives in order to determine the promotion budget. An offering’s budget is a Promote products and services to international markets:
Task 1 – P. 7 critical factor when it comes to deciding which message strategies to pursue. Advertising Printing Brochure/Poster/Flyers Installing Ads at Bus stops Ads in Newsletters Ads in Education Magazines Attending Education Fairs/Shows Broadcast in Radio Total Advertising Budget Resources Printing 2,000 per each Producing ADs Placing Ads for 6months Placing Ads for 6months Show booths Promotional gift Running Ads for 3months Timing 30/ Jun /2013 30/Jun/2013 20 . Each month 20 . Each month 30/Sep/2013 31/Oct/2013 th th Budget $5,000 $3,000 $6,000 $6,000 $11,500 $3,500 $5,000 $40,000.
Manager James Toby Toby Toby Edward James PR Information Board in Neighbour Library Events news in education Newsletters Information Board / news letter in major Community centres Events news in relevant Magazines Sponsorships with neighbour communities Distributing Give-aways Total PR Budget Resources Developing Press Kit Developing Press Kit Developing Press Kit Developing Press Kit Free Trial Coupon Purchasing 1,000 mugs Timing 25th. Each month 20th. Each month 22th. Each month 20th. Each month When happened Through fairs Budget $0 $0 $0 $0 $500 $4,500 $5,000 Manager Gordon Gordon Gordon Gordon Gordon.
Web Development Establishing Home page Maintain & updating News Banner ads in relative web sites Banner ads in Searching Sites Total Web Development Budget Resources Contacting web-company Gathering upcoming events & information Producing Banners Organising searching words Timing 30/May/2013 Every Friday 30/Dec/2013 30/Dec/2013 Budget $10,000 $1,000 $500 $500 $12,000 $57,000 Manager Percy Percy Percy Percy Total Budget 1. 6 Policies and Procedures: a) Legislative: In Korea, the vocational education starts in high school therefore lots of legislation involved the rights of minor students.
The most relevant laws are; – Framework ACT on Education is to provide for the rights and duties of citizens and the obligations of the State and local governments on education, and prescribe an educational system and fundamental subjects for its operation. – Act on the establishment and operation of private teaching institutes and extracurricular lessons is to contribute to the promotion of lifelong education, and to prescribe matters pertaining to extracurricular lessons, by providing for matters on the establishment and operation of private teaching institutes to encourage the sound development of private teaching institutes.
– Vocational Education and training promotion ACT 2011 is to secure the employment of workers, raise their social and economic status, and improve the productivity of enterprises, thus contributing to social and economic development by promoting and supporting employee skills development throughout their lives. Promote products and services to international markets:
Task 1 – P. 8 – VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROMOTION ACT is to provide the people with opportunities for various types of vocational education and training suitable to their characters and aptitudes, and elevate the efficiency and quality of vocational education and training by prescribing the matters necessary for the promotion of vocational education and training, and thereby to contribute to the enhancement of the people’s standards of living and the development of the national economy.
– Workers vocational skills development Act is to secure the employment of workers, raise their social and economic status, and improve the productivity of enterprises, thus contributing to social and economic development by promoting and supporting employee skills development throughout their lives.
– Enforcement decree of the vocational education and training promotion ACT 2010 is to provide for the matters delegated by the Vocational Education and Training Promotion Act and matters necessary for the enforcement thereof – Promotion of industrial education and Industry-Academic cooperation ACT is to contribute to the development of local communities and the nation by training creative industrial manpower to serve the needs of the industrial society, and by developing, providing, and disseminating such new knowledge and technologies as required for further progress of industries, through the promotion of industrial education and industry-academic cooperation.
– LIFELONG EDUCATION ACT is to provide for the basic matters concerning responsibilities of the State and local governments for the promotion of lifelong education, lifelong education system, and management thereof, as prescribed in the Constitution and the Framework Act on Education.
– Promotion of industrial education and Industry-Academy cooperation ACT is to contribute to the development of local communities and the nation by training creative industrial manpower to serve the needs of the industrial society, and by developing, providing, and disseminating such new knowledge and technologies as required for further progress of industries, through the promotion of industrial education and industry-academic cooperation.
b) Ethical: Under the ideal of hongik-ingan (contributing to the overall benefit of humankind – the founding spirit of the first kingdom in Korean history), the objectives of Korea’s education are to: assist all people in perfecting their individual character, develop the ability to achieve an independent life and acquire the qualifications of democratic citizens, and be able to participate in the building of a democratic state and promoting the prosperity of all humankind.
Based on these ideas, the vocational education curriculum also aims at fostering independent, creative citizens who are able to lead the globalisation and information age of 21 century. 5 Accordingly moral education today in Korea is a reflection of these situational and historical factors. To put it another way, the needs for solidifying a national identity as Korean people, cultivating democratic values/attitudes, and creating a moral consensus through a synthesis between traditional values and democratic values were important causes of the implementation of moral education as a separate, required subject-matter in schooling. c) Security:
ABFI has partnership with GNU Privacy Guard – which is an open-source implementation to protect and secure materials & resources, and a volume and individual file encryption tool with support for a dozen encryption schemes, paired keys, and expiring signatures. This makes huge distinguish against competitors in terms of quality of the education we provides.
This online Information Systems Security can be achieved through accredited online schooling designed to challenge students by giving them new tools for assessing security needs, maintaining security systems, and designing and implementing secure systems. The online program helps students master their skills of troubleshooting and risk analysis.
Although many jobs in the information systems security field only require one to have a bachelor’s degree, having an online master’s degree in information systems security shows future employers you have the skills to be successful in a leadership position. Promote products and services to international markets: Task 1 – P. 9 1. 7 Roles and Responsibilities:
The personnel structure in ABFI is like below and the manager is in charge of performing and training of individual staff members. Jeff Mazzini Chief Executive Officer Lanai Carter Training Manager Sandy Thompson Marketing Manager Erina Cunningham HR Manager Teena Huggett Facilities Manager Lisa Ditchburn Promotions Manager Barry Doherty Promotions Assistant (Domestic) Michelle Firth Promotions Assistant (International).
Chief Executive Main Responsibilities – Creates annual operation plans that support strategic direction set by the board and correlate with annual operating budgets; submits annual plans to the board for approval – Collaborates with the board to define and articulate the organisation’s vision and to develop strategies for achieving that vision – Develops and monitors strategies for ensuring the long-term financial viability of the organisation – Develops future leadership with the organisation. Timing 30/ Jun /2013 Spec 20th. Each month 30/Sep/2013 31/Oct/2013 Marketing Manager Main Responsibilities.
– Identify “core competencies” of workforce and Backup, check training materials periodically. – Support and implement the system of performance appraisal, and Ensure training programs are aligned with company programs – Contact trainer and line managers to determine the location, time, facilities and training – Make training list for employees to sign, take back training documents. – Contact with line managers / supervisors to build up schedule for training materials Timing 25th.
Each month 20th. Each month 22th. Each month 20th. Each month When happened Spec Promote products and services to international markets: Task 1 – P. 10 Training Manager Main Responsibilities.
– Search training suppliers, signed a contract with the partners at the company – Manage the training records of the company – Manage training materials stipulated by regulations – Assist in conducting employee skill evaluations. Timing 30/May/2013 Every Friday 30/Dec/2013 30/Dec/2013 Spec HR Manager Main Responsibilities – Recruitment and contracting of company and project staff; – Employee development, training , and Employee relations and Employment and compliance to regulatory concerns and reporting;
– Performance management and improvement systems; – Company-wide committee facilitation including planning, production, staff and Board of Directors, including arranging meetings and agendas, attending and minuting meetings; Timing Before promotion starts when promotion starts when promotion starts when promotion starts Spec Facilities Manager Main Responsibilities.
– Consulting on the Ads/promotions where there are facts against ABFI regulations and policies, enforce ABFI regulations and policies and assist other ABFI employees in carrying out ABFI regulations and policies – Stay current on all ABFI policies and procedures by utilizing the communications available for promotion activities – Maintain general safety and security, monitor access, and maintain appearance and overall environment of ABFI facilities to prepare open day.
– Provide program and event assistance by answering questions and guiding participants to the appropriate locations – Participate in reviewing, interviewing, hiring, training, supervisor, and evaluating of new ABFI employees. Timing Always Always Always Always Always Spec 1. 8 Special skills / Technology.
To enter new competitive market in Korea, the ABFI is here required hiring extra help from out of the organisation. Those staff will assist the ABFI in their specialised field. They are like • Translators, who help effective communication between the head office and branch offices. They will bridge each issue currently happening – which will start cultural gaps and misunderstanding – to compromise within common understanding. • Korean resident staffs, who will build up connection with authorities in terms of developing friendly policies and strategies for establishing foreign education institute at local, regional or national level.
• Media Promotion specialists, who work through media connections; planning, developing, implementing, monitoring and evaluating projects to promote ABFI in Korea market; facilitating and supporting a wide range of statutory, voluntary, charitable and commercial organisations in their delivery of health promotion activities. • Web Promotion specialists, who organise web-promotions through online activities. Considering Korea has well developed internet Infrastructure, there are various activities to promote our service.
• Education Consultants, who work with a wide range of customers and students including conference, job fairs, school visiting, workplaces, neighborhoods and cultural communities. They bring up a number of different issues such as future job requirements, current trends in business industry and marketing, etc. Promote products and services to international markets: Task 1 – P. 11 1.
Hyeon Mi, Rha, Research Fellow 2011, ‘Quality Assurance System of Training Institutions in Korea’, KRIVET (Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education & Training), Seoul, the Republic of Korea Statistic Korea, http://kostat. go. kr CIEB; Center on International Education Benchmarking, ‘South Korea Overview’, CIEB – Learning from the world’s high performing education systems Dong Yeol Park, Dr.
Director Centre for Vocational Education Innovation KRIVET (Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training), ‘Korean Policies on Secondary Vocational Education; Effort to Overcome Skills Mismatch and Labor Force Shortage’, Seoul; the Republic of Korea UNESCO-IBE complie.