1.1) Explain the welfare requirements & guidance of the EYFS.
The statutory welfare requirements were set up to help guide childcare staff in what is expected of them as part of their role. There are five welfare requirements which Ofsted will check are being met.
Safeguarding and Promoting Children’s Welfare
This section covers a lot of the day-to-day activities which that you will be involved in, for example, food and drink, medicines and behaviour management. There must be written consent for any medicines which need to be administered to children. All staff within the setting must be trained in paediatric first aid and fresh water should be available to the children at all times. Staff can smoke outside as long as there are no children present. Fire doors must be able to be opened easily from the inside. It is important that there is one toilet and hand basin for every ten children over the age of 2 so that these areas can be easily accessed.
All children within the setting must have a key person to allow the child to settle in easily and make it easier to carry out assessments. Children are only allowed to go home with another adult if their parents have given permission. In my setting the parent should tell a member of staff when they drop their child off if they are getting picked up by somebody else. We use a password system meaning that each child has a unique password on their records that the parent and the person picking the child up should know. This tells us that the child is going with the right person.
Anybody working with children in any way needs a separate CRB check for each childcare setting that you work in. You should never use physical intervention when disciplining children, this could be seen as a serious offence and may lead to disciplinary or even dismissal. All unqualified staff who are working with children should be encouraged to gain a level two qualification to gain a better knowledge and understanding in their role. The ratios for staff-children vary depending on the age of the children. The younger the children are, the more staff will be needed.
Suitable Premises, Environment and Equipment
This aims to ensure that children are looked after in suitable and safe premises. The layout of the room is also important as it should allow children to play and communicate appropriately. There are many legal requirements that apply to this section, for example, checking that toys and furniture are safe and that the outdoor area is clean and secure.
This section of the EYFS relates to the promotion of children’s learning and development. This will include planning activities for the children. It is important that you choose activities carefully which have a positive effect on the children’s development and they will enjoy at the same time. It is important that you show the children a routine whilst giving them support and allowing them to have independence at the same time.
This applies to records for children, students doing placement at the setting, and staff working at the setting. These should be kept in a secure, locked cupboard in a private area. These records may need to be changed if there is a change of address or contact number.
1.2) Explain the lines of reporting & responsibility within your setting
Within my setting if there is an issue concerning a child then depending on the issue you may report it to the child’s key person first of all. If it is a serious issue then you may choose to go straight to your line manager or child protection officer. In my setting my line manager is my child protection officer so I would go straight to her. If it is a small issue then I could tell my room supervisor. If there was an issue concerning a member of staff then I would straight to my line manager to avoid breaching confidentiality.
2.4) Explain giving examples, why minimum requirements for Space and Staff ratio’s are necessary for children’s safety.
Minimum space requirements and staff ratios are necessary for the children’s safety because it is important that there are a sufficient amount of adults to supervise the children and meet their needs. Generally the younger the children are, the higher the requirement for space and staff ratio. Most settings will easily meet these requirements. There should be at least one member of staff present when there are three children in care. There should be at least two members of staff present when there are 4-7 children in care.
There should be at least three members of staff present when there are 8 or more children in care. It is important that children have enough room to move freely without having accidents. The room should be laid out in a way that makes more space for the children. If there are accidents then the furniture or equipment should be moved to prevent it from happening again.
3.1) Explain how you promote children’s health & well being in your setting
Within my setting we promote children’s health and well-being in many ways.
If children have not had breakfast before the come into the setting then we offer them toast or cereal and a drink of milk to make sure they have the energy they need for the day. The children are provided with a healthy snack in the morning and afternoon. This usually includes toast, various fruit and milk. The children are provided with a healthy meal for lunch, for example roast chicken dinner.
Fresh air and Physical activity
We then try to get the children outside for about an hour to ensure that they are getting the necessary exercise and vitamin D. This allows the children to breathe in more oxygenated air and ensures appropriate ventilation to prevent the spreading of infections. We also try to include an activity in the planning which will ensure the children are being active, for example dancing or an obstacle course.
We make sure that the children’s nappies are changed morning and afternoon, more if needed. If the children’s clothes are dirty or wet from play then we will change them. We make sure that children wash their hands after going to the toilet and before eating.
We always keep a close on children to monitor their health. If we think a child may be ill then we will take the appropriate actions. This may mean just taking the child’s temperature and giving them a drink and taking clothing off if they are too hot. Depending on how ill the child is and how long it is till they get picked up we may ring their parents to collect them.
Rest and sleep
The children usually have a story or songs before their snack in the morning and afternoon and before their lunch. This is a time where the children can rest and sit quietly. If the children are tired then we allow them to have a sleep in a quiet area of the room.
Provide an example of a week’s menu, showing balanced meals, snack & drinks for children, following current government guidance on nutritional needs.
This menu follows the government guidance on nutritional needs because it includes a lot of fruit and vegetables. It is very varied in different meals and includes most, if not all of the elements of the Eatwell Plate which is recommended by the government.
Why is it important to follow carers’ instructions in respect of their child’s food allergies or intolerances?
It is important that you follow carer’s instructions on their child’s food allergies and intolerances as it can lead to serious consequences. Key workers should be aware of children in their group who have allergies or intolerances. Posters should be made to be displayed within the setting to remind staff. However these should be displayed in the staff room and kitchen; areas where other parents cannot see them.
How would you recognise signs & symptoms of food allergies/intolerances?
Signs and symptoms of food allergies can include swelling of lips or eyes, redness of the face, itching and difficulty breathing. Children with serious allergies may be given an Epipen. Children with severe food allergies may also have an inhaler. Training will be given to staff on how to use this and the child’s key person will be in charge of it. Food intolerances are usually noticed by the child having diarrhoea. Due to diarrhoea having more than one cause it is important that parents talk to their GP about a suspected food intolerance.
It is important that children and parents are aware of what is the right size portion for the child. This is because this can lead to them becoming under or over weight. This could also include the types of food that are included in the portion of food as some foods are healthier for children than others. For example fizzy drinks, chocolate and cake aren’t good for children and can make them become hyperactive and fruit and vegetables are good for children and will provide them with the vitamins that they need. However some fruit juices can also be high in sugar so sometimes it is best just to stick to water.
Tackling under and over weight children
The weight of a child is mainly due to the types of food that the child is eating and the size of the portion. The right amount of exercise is also key in the child being the correct weight. It is important that you are doing the right amount of exercise as too much exercise could mean that you become underweight and too little can mean that you become overweight. Sugary foods like fizzy drinks, cakes, chocolate and sweets will make you put on weight a lot quicker so it is best to avoid these, however you do need a small amount in your diet. Parents should be advised early if it is thought that their child is under or over weight so that action can be taken.
Parents will often choose to believe that their child is just ‘cuddly’ as they don’t want to believe that they are overweight. There are many leaflets and websites that parents can go to for more information on the subject. Being under or over weight can also lead to the child having self-confidence issues so it is best to avoid this. If a child is under or over weight then there may be other issues leading to this so it is important to take the time to discuss issues carefully with the child.
Many children will have phobias of certain foods. This may stem from a bad experience or from them not liking the food. It could also come from watching important adults in their life not eating certain foods and thinking that they shouldn’t either. This can lead to many problems when trying to get children to eat a proper balanced meal. Therefore it is important that parents or carers are provided with tips on how to tackle this.
6.2) Explain the regulations concerning management of medicines & how these are interpreted in the setting. (Cross ref. Unit CYP 3.4-4.2, Unit CYP 3.6-2.3)
Where medical treatment is required the manager will inform the insurance company in writing. Medical forms must be filled in where medicine is administered to children. These must include the date and times to be given, the name of the medicine and how much to give to the child. The form must be filled in by the parent or carer of the child in the presence of a member of staff, at the start of the child’s session. The medication must be kept in the correct place, i.e a fridge or a cool, dry place and a first aider must give the child the medication. We have a child within our setting with asthma who has an ongoing medicine form for his inhaler.
6.3) Explain how you protect yourself when lifting & handling children & equipment in the setting.
It is important when lifting anything that you lift with your knees and not your back. Some children can be quite heavy so it is best to avoid lifting them or getting another member of staff to help you. Poor lifting and handling results in many back injuries. Every member of staff should attend a lifting and handling course. You should always follow your settings policy on lifting and handling. Your manager should have carried out a risk assessment covering daily activities that require you to lift and handle children and resources. You should assess the situation before you move a child or equipment. It may be a good idea to make the object you are lifting smaller or make two trips.
To conclude your assignment, consider how your research has impacted on your knowledge and understanding in this area of learning.
The main sources for my research for this assignment were the book and knowledge from my work setting. I have learnt about dietary needs for different cultures and religions and how to store breast and formula milk.