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Prominent Philadelphia lawyer Essay

1. Thomas Abraham Clark, the son of a prominent Philadelphia lawyer, was born to extreme wealth. He was educated at home by private tutors, and entered local politics at a very early age. He soon rose to the top of his state in politics. Having traveled extensively in Europe, he is obsessed with the tyranny of European governments. He has corresponded with Samuel Adams, Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson. He is convinced that a strong government headed by a king is and has been, the curse of mankind throughout history. Under the Articles of Confederation, Thomas’s law practice has prospered, but he is concerned over the inflated value of some colonial currency. 

Thomas Abraham Clark is a … A.Federalist

B.Anti-Federalist
C.Undecided

Thomas Abraham Clark is best categorized as an Anti-Federalist. He is fearful of the tyranny of strong, centralized government. Thomas is also established as a political leader at the state level. He has corresponded with, aligned with prominent anti-federalists of his time. He is satisfied with the Articles of Confederation (anti-federalist agreement). His only concern that links him to Federalism is that of inflated value of some colonial currency (i.e., a federally regulated monetary system would address this issue).

2. Josiah Bartlett was born the son of a farmer. He has little formal schooling, but has read extensively. At twelve, Josiah left home to serve an apprenticeship as a cooper. By the age of eighteen, Josiah set out to make his mark in his state. Working as an overseer on small plantations, he soon saved enough money to begin buying land of his own, and by 1775 he owned half the land in his state. Rather than operating large scale and exclusively slave plantations, Josiah invested in smaller farms operated by indentured servants. He ships a great deal of cotton to Europe. His economic interests are threatened not only by unstable currency, but by high tariffs and taxes imposed by neighboring states. 

Josiah Bartlett is a … A.Federalist

B.Anti-Federalist
C.Undecided

Josiah Bartlett would be viewed as a Federalist. Although he is a self-made made man from humble beginnings—not the typical profile of the Federalists—he has financial concerns about the unstable and inconsistent economic structure of a loose confederacy that may affect his overseas exporting business. A more stable national economic system, afforded by Federalism, would be in his best interest.

3. Edward Heyward is a member of the landed aristocracy of Georgia, his substantial wealth came from the inheritance of large tracts of land. Heyward, like most of the people in his state, is extremely provincial in his outlook, having had little contact with foreigners outside his state, other than slave traders. His lack of contact with the outside world and his relative wealth have convinced Edward that things have gone splendidly after independence from Britain. His concerns are the Indian tribes of Western Georgia. They are well organized and ably led. Since he has considerable money invested in western land, he would like to see a united effort against the Indians. 

Edward Heyward is a … A.Federalist

B.Anti-Federalist
C.Undecided

Edward Heyward may best be classified as undecided. He is satisfied with the governance of the Articles of Confederation. Edward doesn’t deal in interstate or overseas commerce, so the economic/monetary regulations possible through Federalism are not a concern of his. He is concerned about the possibility of an Indian uprising in his home of Georgia and how that might affect him financially. His support for a united stand for control of Indian aggression would be indicative of Federalism, as the U.S. Army would come to be the force used against such aggression.

4. Patrick O’Neil was born in Hanover County, Virginia. He was largely self-educated. From 1751 until 1760 he was an unsuccessful storekeeper and
farmer. Notoriously indifferent to his private fortunes and ineffectual in his own business, he has made the public his main concern. He is a great orator and by some is called the “voice of the common man.” During the Revolution he served in the House of Burgesses and as governor of Virginia. He was a member of the radical faction which opposed the King before the revolution, and on a number of occasions swore he would give up his life before his freedom. 
He has always thought of himself as a common man. He feels the rights of the people must be protected from all privileged classes, and he has always been a champion of popular rights.
 A.Federalist

B.Anti-Federalist
C.Undecided

Patrick O’Neil is an Anti-Federalist. He is a vehement supporter of popular rights and the interests of the common man. O’Neil is not concerned with business in general, nor the practical economic benefits that might be afforded under Federalism. He was vocally opposed to the Monarchy before this was a popular stance, and would logically be against any form of centralized power in government. He has been a prominent leader in Virginia’s government and would be seen as favoring more authority for state governments as provided by the Articles of Confederation.

5. Tom McKaan, like other lads of sixteen, ran away from home in 1776 to serve in the Continental Army. He was with Washington’s troops at Valley Forge. A slight limp–he lost two toes from frost bite–serves to remind him of that long, hard winter. But his time in the hospital changed his life. An officer in the next bed, in more peaceful times a professor of English, taught Tom to read, as a means of whiling away the time. Tom was an apt pupil. His first primer, Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, was the only book the professor had with him. Tom continued his own education when he was mustered out of the army. In the last ten years he has traveled and spent time in every state, making his living as a journalist. He is well aware of the problems facing the American colonies. He sees the “Spanish-Indian Conspiracy” as a great threat to American growth and the revolt of Daniel Shays as the beginning of the end for stable government.
 A.Federalist

B.Anti-Federalist
C.Undecided

Tom McKaan would best be termed undecided. He was indoctrinated in Anti-Federalism by the writing of Thomas Paine. He continued his education, became a journalist, traveled the country and broadened his horizons. He became concerned with the “Spanish-Indian Conspiracy” and Shays rebellion. This indicated that he perceived the need for a national standing army and that he questioned the ability of the present government to deal with foreign and domestic threats and protect the citizenry. He was seemingly beginning to lean toward Federalism.

6. Francis Whipple was born to wealth in the colony of Massachusetts. During the war years his family sent him to England to be educated in the ministry. After his return from his studies abroad, Charles decided that the economic survival of his state depended upon the acquisition of more land, and that political survival depends upon a strong central government to protect Whipple and his class from the increasing restlessness of the masses. Charles is forever preaching that man’s instincts can never be trusted, that only strong government offers security. He feels that property rights must be protected and that the “masses” must be kept in their place. After seeing the results of Shays Rebellion, he feels the common people should have little or no voice in government.
 A.Federalist

B.Anti-Federalist
C.Undecided

Francis Whipple is Federalist. He believes the privileged few should largely control politics and that they need protection from impulsive uprisings of the uneducated masses. He believes a central government should be empowered to purchase and annex territory for the state. Whipple believes a strong federal government should protect the property rights of the landed gentry. These are primary tenets of Federalism.

7. Clymer Fitzsimmons is a frontiersman from the Northwest. He lives in a sparsely populated area. His father and mother were killed by the Indians during Pontiac’s Rebellion. He has little formal education, but he has no equal in the woods. He was wounded at the Battle of Saratoga, and still carries an English “ball” in his right lung. He was captured later in the war and spent two years as a British prisoner. He is sure that the British government intends to suppress the colonies newly won independence. He believes in a well armed population and a large, well organized militia. Clymer has been little affected by the Articles of Confederation and he is basically satisfied with the present economic situation. He is suspicious of those colonial gentlemen of wealth and English custom. He resents the present state government because he is not allowed to vote, since he owns no property. A.Federalist

B.Anti-Federalist
Undecided

Clymer Fittsimmons is best classified as an Anti-Federalist. He is suspicious of the elite aristocracy and doesn’t entrust them to handle the governance of the new country. Clymer believes a citizen militia is the answer for protection from potential enemies of the new nation. The main objection he has with the government is that his state denies him the right to vote because he is not a landowner. This probably intensives his distrust for the elite and promotes the idea that they would gain more power through Federalism.


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