Planning is critical phase in a project life cycle. Although that is the case project control is pivotal and it goes through the project phase. Without proper project control in any project, failure possibilities are fairly high in such project. The intention of scope management is to define and outline the intention of any project. Scope management is defined by the PMBOK as; ‘….. the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work only the work required, to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with defining and controlling what is or not included in the project.’
The project scope sets the stage for developing a project plan. It clearly states the project’s objectives and deliverables. Scope definition provides an administrative plan that is used to develop your operational plan, i.e. the plan for how you are going to run the project. Scope definition should be as brief as possible, but complete. Poorly defined scope leads to project failure. The development of the scope must involve the project manager, sponsors, performing organisations and beneficiaries.
Our organisation like any other company before initiating a project will follow the following ways in designing scope management:
➢ Scope planning: PMBOK defines this stage as ‘the process of developing a written scope statement as the basis for future project including, in particular, the criteria used to determine if the project or phase has been completed successfully.’ In scope planning issues that refers to schedule, cost timelines and boundaries will be outlined in this phase.
➢ Scope definition: The PMBOK defines scope as; ’subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components’. In order to be clear of the intention of any project, project must be defined clearly in order to operate smoothly. If the scope of the project is not clearly defined the project manager will suffer the consequences of possibilities of project failure and the conflict that will arise between him or her and client or the project sponsor. In relation to the WBS the scope will be divided in work packages.
➢ Scope verification: during the initiation phase and scope planning, stakeholders and the client must verify the scope in order to approve the scope of the intended project. Scope verification is one of the important tools of project planning as the project cannot go ahead until stakeholders verify it. For an example during the initial phase once the project manager presents the feasibility study to the stakeholders their inputs and approval is key to the project.
1. WBS: Work break down structure
The work break down structure (WBS) was developed in the 1960’s as the tool to enhance project planning. WBS is in a hierarchal form where work packages are presented either in graphical box or text indent. Burke (2010:128) mentions the main components of WBS as the following:
▪ Structure ▪ Method of subdivision ▪ Numbering or coding ▪ Level of detail ▪ Number of WBS levels ▪ Roll up ▪ Integrating the WBS to assign responsibility
Once the scope and deliverables have been identified, the work of the project can be subdivided into smaller work elements. The outcome of this process is called the work breakdown structure. All the elements/steps that make up WBS are called work packages. It is very useful as the structure clearly points to what has to be done and in what sequence (order). It divides the work and responsibility into individual work implementation for the project by:
• making it possible to plan, schedule and budget; • providing a framework for tracking and monitoring cost and work performance; • defining communication channels; • assisting in understanding and coordinating many parts of the project; • pointing to problems and ensuring they are quickly addressed