This style of programming was brought as a result of lines of code being too long, thousands of lines of code were needed for one program. The procedural approach of programming was introduced that would break down these lines of code into block of around 10 lines of code, these blocks were used to carry out specific functions for the overall program. These functions are procedures hence the name of this style of programming was called Procedural Programming.
In procedural programming a program would be built by writing these functions/procedures and calling upon them when you need them to perform a function in the program. An example of procedural programming is a scoreboard for a football tournament where the winning team would receive 3 points, and the losing team 0, if the teams draw 1 point is allocated to each team. The program for this would be broken down into blocks:
The program is controlled by one control procedure, that calls each of the other procedures in the order that they’ll be executed, in this example the procedures called from the input, then to calculate and finally to display results. Procedural programming has many limitations; firstly, there is a lack of reusability, this is because by using procedural programming, thousands of lines of code are used which are for one specific purpose.
If the program was to be used in the same organisation, amending the lines of code can be a lengthy procedure as there are many lines of code to sort through, also if some lines of code are edited, bugs can occur in other parts of the while program, therefore it would be best to create a completely new program. Another limitation is the fact that using procedural programming is not productive, as is it a lengthy process, and programmers who can code in the procedural style are very expensive, therefore employing them can be very expensive.
Team working while using the procedural programming can be very difficult, even though large organisations require a group of programmers rather than one. Object orientated programming became more popular due to the fact that team working was not easy, it allowed teams to be split up so that they could each create objects and then bring them together to create one whole program. FORTRAN is a typical application that uses procedural programming; this was one of the first high-level languages and was created by IBM in 1954. FORTRAN is still used today for scientific, engineering and mathematical problems.