Understand the scope and purposes of the early year’s sector Explain how the range of early year’s settings reflects the scope and purpose of the setting The early year’s sector has been at the forefront of the government’s agenda over the past 10-15 years and there have been huge changes in response to social and economic development. In October 2003 the EPPE report was published where the effects of preschool education on 3-4 year olds were studied. A selection of provisions were selected including work with children with minimal preschool experience.
The main findings were • Pre-school experience, compared to none, enhances children’s development. • The duration of attendance is important with an earlier start being related to better intellectual development and improved independence, concentration and sociability. • Full time attendance led to no better gains for children than part-time provision. • Disadvantaged children in particular can benefit significantly from good quality pre-school experiences, especially if they attend centres that cater for a mixture of children from different social backgrounds.
Unlike many European countries the UK’s early years sector was not developed by government policy with specific aims, but rather came about in response to families requirements
In the later part of the 20th century public expenditure focussed on EY provision for families with social needs and difficulties, Local authority nurseries were set up that catered mainly for children from deprived areas who might be at harm EY provision in the private sector consisted of private nurseries, childminders and nannies.
In response to parents wanting EY provision they could attend with their child, the playgroup movement formed, where parents set up and ran provisions for their own children in community halls or other halls
In the UK there are many types of other settings such as privately owned nurseries, preschools, childminders, crèches, children’s centres, and toddler groups, these cater for the many needs of families, covering families who want a home based environment for their child to families that are unable to pay expensive fees for childcare but still want EY education.
Understand current policies and influences on the early year’s sector Identify current policies and frameworks and influences in the early years and identify the impact
In the UK over the last 10-15 years the early years sector has been in the forefront of government policy, since the 1990s demand for childcare has increased steadily. Mainly due to the number of mothers of under-fives working outside the home has now risen to 60%, a significant proportion of this demand has been met by private nurseries.
It is now widely understood and recognised that EY provisions are highly significant in determining outcomes for young children and laying the foundations for behaviour and learning. The headstart programme in the USA provides education and health care for young children in low income families. They have an emphasis on parental involvement. Research has shown that this early intervention that children are achieving better qualifications and employment prospects later in life, and are less likely to involved in criminality, addiction or become teenage parents. Theis prompted UK politicians in the late 1990s to gain greater appreciation of the parts played by good EY provisions in affecting anti-social behaviour.
There are now social inclusion policies that seek to make sources of support available to all families in a universal way not just to those on low incomes This is where sure start centre evolved from, being designed to give ‘one stop’ point of contact for families for health care services, early education and social care. These services are available to families from before birth. As the early year sector expanded there has been tension between making sure there is a balance between quantities of childcare provisions not out weighing quality of education. To address this frameworks have been developed influenced by childcare theorists, to ensure quality and continuity of care, all EY providers must follow the EYFS and there are frameworks such as every child matters and data protection and safeguarding guidance that must be followed as well as regulating the industry (Ofsted)
Describe what is meant by evidence based practice and give examples of how this as influenced work with children in their early years evidence based practice is that which is influenced by objective evidence based of research, early years settings are likely to be influenced by many things including experiences as a parent or child, on the job learning, training you have undertaken, reading and viewing of programmes. When looking at evidence and research it is important to remember that some studies are based on small numbers of children and might give a superficial view, research often contradicts each other, and research can be poorly reported by the media
Understand how to support diversity, inclusion and participation in the early year’s settings What is meant by, Equality, Diversity and inclusion? Equality, is allowing each child to have and experience opportunities for development that are the same as every other child Diversity is the differences in people and society, which are from different genders, back grounds race and sex. It includes different family values, sexuality and appearance. It should be viewed in a positive light but sometimes isn’t Inclusion, allows each child to participate and experience a feeling of belonging, regardless of their diversity
Explain the importance of anti-discriminatory/anti-bias practice, giving examples of how it is applied in practice with children and carers
All childcare settings need to be inclusive as it promotes equality and supports diversity. If a child sees that all children are offered the same learning opportunities regardless of background or ability they will feel valued and included. They will see themselves in a positive light and the diversity of the community as a whole can be celebrated Inclusion is the total opposite of discrimination, and allows all children to feel respected and valued by their settings, this positive feeling will then reflect in their whole life and allow them to be inclusive of others and further promote diversity Child care settings can celebrate differences in positive way with sensitively planned role play areas, books, and puzzles puppets.
It is also important that practitioners feel confident to answer young children’s questions about differences in a confident and positive way so that child learn positive role models from a young age. Explain how the active participation of children in decisions affecting their lives promotes the achievements of positive outcomes Active participation helps to overcome a service being designed that is not wanted or needed. Active participation ensures that services are designed around what people need or want. In order to achieve active participation early years practitioners need to listen to what children and families want and to be ready to adapt or change the service they offer if possible so that it suits the child or family more.
Early years practitioners need to communicate openly with parents and to show respect to their opinions. Be open to receiving communication from children, which in the case of very young children may be non-verbal i.e. crying It is important for Early Years Practitioners to model a positive and healthy lifestyle for the children to emulate it is important for Early Years Practitioners to provide an environment where children feel safe, happy and challenged to achieve more. If a child feels safe they are able to explore and develop, while being guided towards positive choices. By using the active participation approach to how the setting is run the early years practitioner can ensure that regardless of the child’s age, stage and ability the setting meets their needs and will help them to achieve positive outcomes.