According to the world journal of biotechnology and microbiology rapid ethanol fermentation can be achieved by fermenting the sugars with zymomonas mobilis. Ethanol is also called ethyl alcohol . Brewing is the process of culturing yeast to obtain alcohol. As ethanol is produced from grains it is also called grain alcohol. Ethanol is a mild toxic chemical, colorless and flammable in nature. In 1815, Gay-Lussac formulated the conversion of glucose to ethanol. Production of ethanol per tonne of molasses is about 225litres. There are limited number of microorganisms which can ferment carbohydrates into alcohols and yield some by-products.
Many countries like Brazil, India, U. K. and U. S. are producing ethanol in large quantities i. e. nearly 700 million litres per annum. Brazil has been using ethanol as automotive fuel and Gasohol which is a mixture of gasoline and ethanol is a very famous fuel in USA which is in demand. Dubey stated that “Ethanol is produced from organic material that contains sugar as fundamental units”. The raw materials used for fermentation process are called fermentable substrates. The most efficient microbes for the production of ethanol is Zymomonas Mobilis.
Because when compared Zymomonas Mobilis can produce alcohol twice as rapidly as other alcohol producing bacteria and yeast. Plant starch, corn sugar are used as raw materials for production of ethanol by Zymomonas Mobilis. Zymomonas Mobilis is a gram negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. Two fermentation steps are involved in this process. They are 1. Conversion of cellulose to sugars and 2. Conversion of sugars to ethanol by Zymomonas Mobilis. Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase are the key enzymes involved in ethanol production.