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Process Work Essay

Module 1: Contexts: Unit 1: Purposes of the school curriculum

|Unit 1 Activity 1: Changing curriculum principles | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |Unit 1 Activity 2: The hidden curriculum | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | | Unit 1 Activity 3: Ivan Illich | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |Unit 1 Activity 4: What should the education system aim to achieve? | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |To what extent do you agree that ‘schools should be inculcating knowledge relevant to modern society such as the ability to live | |healthily, to manage money and to find fulfilment’ (Bloom, 2008: para 2). In the space below, write a piece for your tutor, in no more | |than 500 words, as a response to this question. | |A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of teachers. Curriculum which is the | |frame work of the school has been broadly defined as all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school, and all planned | |learning for which the school is responsible Marsh C.J and Willis (http/coefaculty.aldosta.edu/grubbs/ definitions).Curriculum is | |structured to be flexible, and always reflect goals of the nation. | |( It is important to be clear about the correct meaning of terms but these definitions do not focus the reader immediately on the | |required subject.)

| |Prof. John white ( White) a professor in the Institute of Education University of London is of ( the) opinion that schools should be | |inculcating knowledge relevant to modern day societal needs like ability to live healthy, manage money and find fulfilment ( new | |sentence?) in his published work “What schools are for and Why” White(2007).He is also of opinion that the existing curriculum with its | |emphasis on discrete subjects is a relic of the 19th century attitudes to school and he argues that such values no longer apply to the | |21st century. This writing is aimed at showing my extent of agreement with his opinion. | |Health is defined as feeling sound, well, vigorous and physically able to do things that most people ordinarily can do.J.Mirowsky and | |Ross (2003). Research shows that healthy eating can improve childrens’ concentration and help them do better in school says paediatric | |behavioural nutritionist Janice Baronowski from Baylor University in

Houston.http://www.livestrong.com/article/192724. It was also | |observed in China that exercise which is part of the daily activities in schools kept the pupils mind and body alert, and helped their | |performance. Since the well-being of an individual including his emotional balance cannot be separated from his ability to succeed in the| |pursuit of his individual and societal interest at large, I agree that schools inculcate knowledge of the ability to live healthily. This| |will include regular exercise and healthy eating. However, some physical exercises done to keep fit could pose a threat to the health of | |some children. | |John white in his published work is also of opinion that money managing skills be taught children. Trilling and hood ( Hood) (2001) | |suggest that we are moving from the industrial age to the knowledge age where knowledge becomes manpower.

As the world is growing and | |economic policies changing, I agree that children be taught how to spend and save but any attitude attached to spending is somewhat | |related to the level of income and needs of the individual which is very dynamic. On the other hand, a general principle on spending can | |be taught to guide children as they grow to fit into a larger society. Inculcating values like kindness, trust is also relevant as this | |are values that promote integrity and efficiency in the way things are done in the society. | |Personal fulfilment however is a broader term to consider. It is encouraged that children learn to discover and live their dreams, but to| |what extent can we measure one’s fulfilment, and how relevant is an individual’s fulfilment ( fulfilment?) to the needs of the society? | |The school curriculum is a reflection of the needs of the society, therefore knowledge to be inculcated in schools should be aimed at | |achieving societal goals, not just individuals finding fufillment in what they do. | |( You are beginning to develop some interesting arguments here. I was interested , especially, in how you related health to effective | |learning and identified the possible contradiction between individual fulfilment and societal needs. You have the potential here to | |take a more critical , and questioning, view of White’s theory although this is not developed. | |You weaken your argument by not keeping a clear focus on the required task as well as through having unnecessary errors in writing. To | |present work at Masters level requires more careful proof reading. ) |

|Unit 1 Activity 5: Overall curriculum aims | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have watched and listened to the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ | |I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ | |Unit 1 Activity 6: The purposes of one curriculum subject | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have posted a contribution to the discussion board |√ | |Please paste the text of your initial discussion board entry below: | |Language study is as important as the essence of language itself which is basically communication.Communication is a necessary tool | |required for human beings to co-exist, and language is a dominant means of communication.Language is all emcompassing,it ( It) is the | |identity of any tribe and nation at large, ( ?) it is the medium for interaction between teachers and pupils for all subjects,and also | |necessary for international relations. |

|English and French are two languages widely spoken in countries all over the world.English is the Lingua Franca of most British colonized| |nations,Nigeria inclusive,among over 250 languages spoken in the country.It is also important to be competent in the use of English as | |the Lingua franca of the nation.Asides effective communication,competence builds confidence which is a necessary quality children should | |imbibe.In Nigeria English is taught as a core subject from nursery to secondary school level,and in the University it is compulsorily | |studied as a general course. | | | |( You present a reasoned case. Again, watch sentence structure and the use of capital letters) | |Unit 1 Activity 7: Education and the knowledge age | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have read the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ | |I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ |

PGCE International – Process work record form

Module 1: Contexts: Unit 2: Understanding educational systems

|Unit 2 Activity 1: Crossing cultures | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have watched and listened to the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ | |I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ | |Unit 2 Activity 2: Key issues in your own educational system | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |What might your tutor need to understand about your own educational contexts (both teaching and learning)? In the space below, write an | |analysis, in no more than 500 words, of the main issues which she or he will need to take into consideration when responding to your work| |on this course: |

| KEY EDUCATIONAL ISSUES IN MY COUNTRY | |In discussing major issues in the Nigerian Education system where I practice,it is important to note that there is no uniformity of | |standard and practice.While Government schools run with a standard and curriculum,the private schools adopt standards and curriculum in | |line with the vision of their owners so we have the British,Turkish,Lebanese,American and even a blend of more than one curriculum in | |practice by different schools.This disuniformity ( I do not think this is a correct word, though I understand what you are saying. You | |would need to state “This lack of uniformity…”) in standard in itsself ( itself?) is a major issue.For this reason the dominant issues | |in the public schools like poor infrastructure,fewer learning and teaching aids, might not be very ( ?) present in the private | |schools.

This is as a result of fund mismanagement and poor maintenance of existing facilities in public schools. ( Are you arguing that | |it is the lack of Government standard and curriculum that leads to better facilities and learning in private schools? I am not clear of | |your argument.) | |Poor power supply affects the use of electronic teaching and learning aids such as the interactive white board,computers,etc. and | |facilities that enhance a comfortable learning environment like the air conditioners and fans.Though this is a challenge faced by both | |the public and private schools at large,it is largely overcome by the private schools that use alternative power supply.This | |however,means extra cost to these schools and is shared by the children as they have to pay higher school fees thus making very good | |quality education expensive and hardly affordable for those below average class. | |Teachers’ welfare in the past was very poor as they were not well renumerated and in most schools both public and private,they are | |still poorly paid and priced.This has led to a negative approach towards the profession and demotivated people from going into practice.A| |high turnover of teachers also exists in schools as existing teachers leave the profession for more “promising professions”.Some teachers| |are not motivated enough to give their best to the profession and are most times absent from the classroom as a result of this poor | |treatment especially in government schools.

The country is however in the process of improving teachers welfare. | |Educational policies for some time, have not been relatively stable so we have a policy implemented today and discarded tomorrow, for | |instance the 6-3-3-4 system of six years in primary school,three years in a vocational training school for those who can not go further | |to secondary education,three years in senior secondary school and four years in university was changed to a 9-3-4 education system which | |was kicked against by many technocrats in the field.shortly ( start a sentence with a capital letter) after it was changed back to the | |6-3-3-4 system.This instability has greatly challenged the Nigerian Educational system,considering the cost of training teachers to | |reflect policy aims,and cost of adopting and implementing the policies. | |The Multi ethnicity of the country has an effect on the country’s education policies.What may be acceptable as a practice in one state or| |culture might not be in another.For instance, in the Northern part of Nigeria, culture places more restriction on the females unlike | |other parts of the country, thereby making it difficult for some policies to be implemented.This is especially as regards curriculum and | |professional practice. | | | |( You raise many interesting issues in this response. You still need to proof read with greater care and check the clarity of every | |argument.) | | | | | | | |Unit 2 Activity 3: Exploring Teachers TV | |I have watched at least three of the Teachers TV videos and made appropriate notes | |in my commonplace book |√ | |Unit 2 Activity 4: Comparing approaches | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |Unit 2 Activity 5: Improving approaches | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have listened to the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ |

|I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ | |I have posted a contribution to the discussion board |√ | |Please paste the text of your initial discussion board contribution below: | |I agree that some elements of the practices in the educational system of other countries have been adopted into the Nigerian educational | |system and will like to add that failure of the 6-3-3-4 system is not in its inability to produce competent graduates who can fit into | |the larger society, but in the fact that its aim of six years compulsory primary education accompanied with three years vocational | |training in vocational schools was not fully achieved.This is seen in the existence of fewer vocational schools for science,wood, | |furniture and textile making in the country. | |On mathematics I suppose the difference between the practice in Hungary and Nigeria lies more in the method employed in teaching the | |subject.

Maths teaching in Nigeria is more abstract and most teachers,especially in government schools, use less attractive manipulatives | |in teaching concepts compared to the Hungarian practice.In Nigeria focus seems to be on the cognitive with less emphasis on process which| |i ( I) believe amounts to the reason why at age 8 children can recite multiplication tables to 12. I also observed that students | |performance in the subject in Nigeria seems to be poorer compared to their counterparts in Hungary.In the external examination conducted | |in my secondary school which is owned by the Federal Government in 2005, over 50% failure in maths was recorded. | |Although there is current record of improvement in the subject,I believe if we adopt the Hungarian method of teaching the subject | |practically with more attractive manipulatives especially in early education stage, and organize periodic seminars for teachers | |irrespective of the sector which they belong to on improved strategies for teaching the subject, there will be improved performance in | |mathematics among students in Nigeria. |

|( You demonstrate that you have engaged with the materials  on the course and are relating them to your own experience in Nigerian | |schools.) | |Unit 2 Activity 6: Exploring links | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |Unit 2 Activity 7: British Council Schools Online | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ |

PGCE International – Process work record form

Module 1: Contexts: Unit 3: Understanding the classroom

|Unit 3 Activity 1: The value of observation
| |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have listened to the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ | |I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ | |Unit 3 Activity 2: The ethics of classroom observation | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have read the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ | |I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ | |Unit 3 Activity 3: Observing two pupils | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |Unit 3 Activity 4: Three further influential factors | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have read the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ | |I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ | |Unit 3 Activity 5: Creating a positive classroom ethos | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |Unit 3 Activity 6: Social and emotional aspects of learning | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have read the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ | |I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ |

|Unit 3 Activity 7: Pupil grouping and the learning environment | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have posted a contribution to the discussion board |√ | |Please paste the text of your initial discussion board contribution below: | |I will prefer grouping pupils based on mixed ability. This is to enhance exchange of not only ideas, but also to encourage character and | |learning strategy influence between the high and low ability. If learning is to be child centred, then I believe children should be given| |a chance to learn from each other, not only from their teachers. However grouping based on ability will be encouraged in core subjects | |like Mathematics to help those struggling in the subject recieve ( receive) more attention from teachers in their areas of challenge, but| |learning would not be restricted to this setting alone, ( New sentence?) grouping will vary based on topic taught and needs of the | |learner. |

|Language classes will be more beneficial if there is mixed ability grouping because Language theorist ( Are you referring to someone | |specific? If so state this.) have proven that Language is better learnt through association especially between the more competent and the| |less competent ones. | |( You present some good arguments here. Do writers like Kutnick raise any other issues that you think are important? Are there | |circumstances in the classroom when you would not use mixed ability grouping but , instead, base grouping on other factors?) | |Unit 3 Activity 8: Multimodal semiotic analysis | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |I have watched/listened to the feedback provided at the end of the activity |√ | |I have added to/amended my commonplace book entries in the light of this feedback |√ | |Unit 3 Activity 9: Classroom observation | |I have made appropriate entries in my commonplace book |√ | |In the light of your classroom observation, think about any new understandings which you feel that this approach has provided for you. | |Have you been surprised by any of the ways in which meanings can be constructed in classrooms? Write a critical account of multimodal | |semiotic analysis as a methodology.

What are its strengths and limitations? | |In the space below, write a summary of your responses to these questions (in no more than 500 words) for your tutor: | |Multimodal semiotics is deriving meaning from different modes employed by the teacher in the classroom. Semiotics refers to meaning of | |all kinds, with sign as its central focus that is meaning derived not only from words spoken, but in other symbols. Modes refer to the | |many means by which meaning is made. Kress et al (2005). Modes described by Kress et al include classroom layout, voice quality, visual | |display, gesture, gaze, movement of teacher. Multi means various or different kinds. Multimodal semiotics as a concept looks at meaning | |not derived from only one mode in the classroom, but from an interaction between different modes, just as how much is said, written and | |read. |

|In observing an English lesson on traditional tale for year 2 pupils, I took note of the modes employed by the teacher during the lesson | |which includes voice quality, movement and seating arrangement of the pupils, in the cassroom ( classroom).The teacher started on a calm | |low pitched yet confident tone.This tone created a rather friendly and relaxed environment for the children. As the lesson progressed, | |her tone also rose in a clear progression,without loosing its calmness,or sounding too loud.The key words in the | |lesson;tale,traditional,story,villain,happyending,etc. were stressed as she pronounced them. She was also very audible and spoke with | |such clarity that showed great confidence and captivated the attention of the children. I observed that this tone of confidence, | |influenced the behaviour of the children.She did not have to deal so much with inappropraite behaviour in the classroom, her voice tone | |simply gave an atmosphere of discipline. |

|The pupils all sat in twos on tables arranged in traditional setting of three rows, facing the teacher who was majorly( mainly?) standing| |before them, with her table at the side in front of the classroom. Her table position was such that she could monitor the children from | |all angles without necessarily seating in front of them. Seating arrangement was changed to group seating when a task was given. The | |pupils were asked to use WOW words to describe a picture on the interactive white board and were placed in groups of four on each table, | |facing each other which I observed encouraged participation between all the children in the classroom. After performing the task, the | |pupils went back to their former positions. For another task, pupils sat in twos on different tables to form mnemonics to remember | |spellings of different words. Her movement was however restricted as she scarcely moved around to see what the pupils were doing, but | |only gave instructions vocally. She had someone from each table stand and read out what was on a worksheet.

This made the lesson look | |teacher centered. | |The teacher’s restricted movement did not really reflect a participatory class environment but a teacher centred one, contrary to the | |seating arrangement. The tone of the teacher however influenced the lesson style; it was very confident, quite firm and created a | |friendly environment. The rising and falling tone captivated the pupils’ interest and I observed that this made the lesson interesting. | |( You show good understanding of this theory of communication in the classroom and how it can be used to support deeper observation of | |what is taking place. You show good observation and identify many interesting aspects of the lesson. I also found interesting how the | |teacher proved more effective in different parts of the lesson. Well answered.) | | |


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