The purpose of this executive summary is to outline the design approaches between a product (car) and a service (spa). Information will be provided on the design processes associated with a product, including assembly line, continuous flow, batch production and job shop, as well as the design processes associated with a service, such as the personal attention approach, the self-service approach and the product line approach. When it comes to identifying appropriate design approaches for a product, the options include:
1. Assembly line:
Work processes begin with step 1 and continue step by step until the end product is achieved. This is the most appropriate design approach for a car. “The path for each part is, in effect, a straight line. Products are made by moving from workstation to workstation at a controlled rate, following the sequence needed to build the product,” (Jacobs & Chase, 2011, p. 197). In the case of a car, the assembly line would include one step to place the engine in place, another step to secure the hood and a third step to place the wheels in the wheel wells.
2. Continuous flow:
This approach is completed solely by machine. According to Jacobs & Chase (2011), “Continuous flow is usually highly automated and, in effect, constitutes one integrated “machine” that may operate 24 hours a day to avoid expensive shutdowns and start-ups,” (p. 197). This would not be ideal for a car as the process of creating an automobile needs to be monitored constantly.
3. Batch production:
Machines are pre-programmed to make batches of one specific item. This design approach would produce 12 doors, 12 wheels and 12 windshields but would not incorporate the mechanics associated with the individuals who are required to piece these parts together to physically build the car, (“Business Studies: Production Methods”, 2014).
4. Job shop:
Used to make small batches of parts of a product, for example, when building a car engine, there are different pieces involved to keep the various parts in place, such as nuts and bolts. The job shop design approach is used to produce these nuts and bolts but would not be a suitable design approach for building an entire automobile. With regards to identifying the appropriate design approaches for a service, the options include:
1. Personal attention approach:
Focuses on developing a solid relationship between the provider of the service and the customer. This approach ensures superior customer service and will thus assist in building a loyal customer base. The personal attention design approach would be the most appropriate for a spa in that the technicians will focus on the individual needs of each customer and ensure no customer is left unsatisfied at the end of their service, thereby building a lasting relationship with the customers and guaranteeing future business.
2. Self-service approach:
This approach allows the customers to play a greater role in their service. The role of the customer transforms from that of a customer to that of a partial employee by involving consumers in the service process. This would not be ideal for a spa as the entire purpose of this service is to create a relaxing environment, one in which the customer plays no role in the service other than to enjoy it.
3. Product line approach:
Treats the service as if it were a product by focusing on the end result as opposed to the service itself. According to Jacobs & Chase (2011), “the orientation is toward the efficient production of results not on the attendance on others.” This would not be an ideal approach for a spa to take as the focus of spa-services are on the quality of the service being delivered to the customer, not on the end result of a beautiful manicure (for example). After all options have been weighed, the assembly line design approach would be the most appropriate for manufacturing a product such as a car as it is the most efficient and effective from start to finish while using the personal attention approach would be the ideal design approach for a service such as a spa by helping it build a loyal customer base for its business.
Process Design Aspect
Design focal point
Superior treatment of customers
Process design approach
Personal attention approach
Assembly line approach
Process Performance Measurement
Number of automobiles produced per month, total number of defects per million, number of job related injuries
Close to customer, preferably in a high socioeconomic area
Close to the supplier, transportation or source of labor
Capacity should be set to match peak demand; higher capacity on weekends
Business Studies: Production Methods. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/business/production/methodsofproductionrev2.shtml Jacobs, F.R., & Chase, R. (2011). Operations and Supply Chain Management (13th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database. Sowell, T. J. (2006). Strategic Manufacturing Management. USA: Xlibris Corporation.