The Health and Social care has many sections or Organisations that provide Healthcare services to people with special needs. Health and social care services use the Philosophy of Careto support vulnerable people by implementing their rights according to the right legislation and codes of practice. The legislation also provides way to protect the service users for harm and abuse. A person-centred approach used by the services ensure individual needs of service users. Although the philosophy of care is used to improve and care for service users yet there is still ethical dilemmas and conflicts that we face. As a care workers in ABC care home we have to do all the required training to always know and do what is expected of us when it comes to protecting service users and use the theories of human development that can help me manage with the considering of social processes to make recommendations for health and social care services to vulnerable people with others professionals. Principles are simply rules or guideline. In this case we are looking at guideline of support.
Principles of support are useful to health and social care settings success. We can apply principles of support to ensure that individuals are cared for by promoting Anti-discriminatory practice. This is by lawful treating every individual with respect, by not treating them less favourable or disadvantaged. (Anti-Discrimination Act 1998. Tasmania). This can achieved by promoting and supporting individuals’ rights. People who need health care particularly long –term care they sometime feel like their dignity and independence is being taken away from them. Principles of support are applied to ensure that individuals are cared for in Health and social care settings by supporting individuals’ beliefs and identities. For example if they are Christians most of them some would be expected to have a need to church. To ensure that individuals are cared in health and social care is by applying the principles of support. Every Individuals confidentiality should be taken serious, this is very important in health and social care settings because it relates to personal information about patients. The purpose of a confidential care service is to protect the Patients information and restrict who can access it. The Data protection Act (1998) enforces service users information to be protected. (www.tutorcare.co.uk)
Practising promoting effective communication is another way of applying principles of support to individualism health and social care settings. Communication is a two-way process of interaction between two or more people, this involves sender, massage, medium, understanding and then feedback. (Hodder Education) Support and allow individuals to use technology to support themselves. For example, some services users can learn how to play computer games or other forms of computer related tasks and from there then they can always support themselves playing. (Skills for care) By supporting and allowing risk management and risk taking to increase individuals’ independence and choice.
This is achieved by guiding and monitoring services users to get involved in some physical activities. For example playing football, running and others. (Skills for care) 1.2 OUTLINE THE PROCEDURE FOR PROCTECTING CLIENTS, PATIENTS AND COLLEAGUES FROM HARM. Protection in Health and social settings is done mainly in two ways. The first one is to protecting service users from harm and secondly is to safeguard vulnerable people from abuse. So protection in Health and social care is to safeguard from harm or abuse. Harm is damage or injury caused by people or event.
Abuse is a violation of individuals’ human and civil rights. Safeguard from abuse is the multi-displinary work done by care services or other Organisations to minimise and manage risk to Adults that could be exposed to abuse. ABC care home Staff should to know who is behind enforcing the philosophy of care and how it’s applies to protect the entire ABC care home staff and the care home. To Protect ABC care home staff and anyone else that might use the services ABC Carers have to get induction and training when they start work. This is to ensure that ABC Carers have enough knowledge about ABC workplace. This is finding out information and facts for me to settle in ABC care home. This includes codes of practice, rules and regulations that run the care home hence protecting service users and one else that can come to the premises. Training can help Carers to protect service users at ABC care home form harm by learning how to manual handle.
This is using my bodily force to lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling or caring service users within the care home. The regulation that covers manual handling is. (The Manual Handle Operations Regulations 1992. amended 2000). This will enable ABC Carers to use the right equipment for the task and use good handling technique to move the service users and this will reduce risk harming Service user. (www hse.gov.uk). According to (care and the registered manager’s award book) training has to be effective. For this to happen the effective training cycle was created and it has to be fully followed for effective training to be achieved. The cycle involve Identifying training needs, establish training objectives, developing training activity, deliver training activity, check training objectives made and measure improvements. For training to work effectively with in the ABC care home, Trainers have to ensure that they are using every part of the cycle step by step.
This will not only benefit ABC care home but it will help focussing on the right service user for the right reason hence this leading to the desired outcome of training. (Health care and the registered manager’s Award). To be able to protect vulnerable people in ABC care home Carers have to make sure that their personal hygiene is up the standards of Health and social care settings. Hygiene can be achieved in appearance, dressing, behaviour and personal cleanliness. Due the fact that caring for vulnerable people in ABC care home involves serving food. Every staff that deals with serving food has to be clean so that they do not contaminate service users’ food and this can reduce service users from being food poisoned. More to that, ABC care home carer need to know about food hygiene. Food hygiene involves washing hands when starting work, after the use of the toilet, between handling cooked and raw food, after sneezing and so on. (http:/wwww.midsussex.gov.uk/8170.htm). This can minimise the chances of contaminating food that Carers could be handling.
Food hygiene rules of food refrigeration have to be followed, food should not be overloaded or packed tightly, hot food should never be placed in the refrigerators, clean the refrigerators regularly, separate cooked food from raw, check food temperature control. To protect everyone at ABC care home from harm Carers should follow the Health and safety at work Act (HASWA) 1974 Regulations. This act was created to ensure that health and safety at workplace was less risky of harm and injury. Secondly, ABC Carer should apply the reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the health and safety Executive or local Authority. (RIDDOR) 1995. Furthermore, Management of Health and Safety at work Regulations (MHSWR) 1999. The regulation needs employers and managers to do risk assessment in work place.
The application of this Regulation can help reduce hazards. (Health and social care Diploma) The Disability Discriminating Act (DDA) 1995. It puts responsibility on employers to make sure that people with disability can get safe access and exit from the workplace. (Health and social care Diploma) Another Regulation that can really be useful in a care home is (COSHH) 2002. This means the control of substances Hazardous to Health. It provides a framework to reduce the risk to Health and safety in association with hazardous substances. (Health and social care Diploma). ABC carer should know a few techniques about first Aid.
First Aid is the first help given to sick or injured person until full medical treatment is available. This will enable Carers to help service users in case of emergency. For example if a service user is unconscious and breathing they should be placed in the recovery position and so on. Carers in ABC Care home should use the Whistle Blowing Policy; (www.gov.uk/whistleblowing) If a member of staff in ABC care home is miss treating service users or other Carers it’s Carers’ job to report the crime to the manager or local council depending how big the problem is. Appling the Medicines Act 1968 would minimise the risk to service users in ABC care home by giving medicine to the right service user, right time, right medication, right dosage and route. (legislation.gov.uk).
1.3 ANALYSE THE BENEFIT OF FOLLOWING A PERSON CENTRED APPROACH WITH THE USERS OF ABC CARE HOME.
The person centred approach was developed by Carl Rogers (1902-1987) a Psychologist. This was mainly in relation to the therapist and the client, he named it the client centred approach then later he renamed this theory a person centred approach because he wanted to minimise the individuals’ Autonomy. He developed a person centred approach as a way of counselling and psychotherapy. This approach is applied essentially as a Non Directive. Following a person centred approach in ABC care home would help in developing a service user focused service by ensuring that their needs are fulfilled. For example, Health care workers have to provide assistance to the disabled people by doing things for them that they can’t do themselves. For example, some disabled people can’t bath themselves in this case caretakers have to bath them.
Using a person centred approach in ABC care home could help to find out Areas to be improved within the care home. This is by care staff in ABC home ensuring that every individuals’ need is given the right solution. For example, the right wheel chair for different types of disability. Applying a person centred approach in the ABC home can help users to plan ahead for their lives. Care workers can support users achieve their long term goals. This is making sure that service users are well fed and given medication if they are sick to maintain a good health. Using a person centred approach in ABC care can enable users to have choice and control of their own lifestyles. (metro.gov.uk). For example, service users can decide what type of clothes they want to wear.
1.4 Explain ethical dilemmas and conflict that may arise while providing care, support and protection to users of health and social care services. The Ethical dilemma is ‘a situation in which a different choice has to be made between two or more alternatives, especially ones that are equally undesirable’. (Oxford dictionary 2012). The ethical dilemma that has been faced by ABC workers when caring for Mrs. M is that she has acute pains and painkillers prescribed by the doctors are not working due the fact that she likes drinking whisky that she has failed to cut down and this is affecting the painkillers from working. The conflict in Mrs. M’s situation is that painkillers are needed to be taken to reduce the pain she is having but the whisky Mrs. M likes taking is stopping the painkillers from working.
2.1 Explain the implementation of polices, Legislation, regulations and codes of practice that are relevant to own work in ABC care home. A Cording to the Oxford dictionary (2010) a policy is ‘a course of actions, as of a government, political, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions, and other matters’. Every Child Matters is one of the policies used in ABC care home for children welfare. (education.gov.uk). every child matters policy’s aim is to ensure that children are healthy. ABC care workers should make sure that children have good physical and mental health by giving them food, encouraging children to have enough exercises and giving them medication when they are sick. In ABC home Children are safe under the Every Child Matters policy. (education.gov.uk). The policy’s aim is to protect children from harm and neglect. Caretakers in ABC home should care for the children by giving the love and ensuring that their needs are fulfilled. For example, washing their clothes. etc. Care staff in ABC should follow the Healthy and Safety at work act 1974 to minimise harm to children.
For example, following (RIDDOR 1995) ABC care takers should report injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences the Healthy and Safety Executives to so that cases can be followed and investigated to prevent future injuries, diseases and so on. Children should make a positive contribution by engaging in community activities and being part of Society. (education.gov.uk). ABC Care staff should ensure that children are not anti-social and not doing any Crimes. The ABC home staff should encourage children to go school so that they don’t end up is gangs. More to that, Quality protects is another policy that was created by the Department of Health in 1998. (www.rip.org.uk) Quality protects’ aim is to support Local Authorities in transforming the way they manage and deliver Children’s Social services.
One of the Quality Protects’ aims in ABC care home is to make sure that Children get a bond to ABC carers enabling safe and effective care for the period of Childhood. For example, there should be a father and son relationship between a Male carer and a boy service user. Secondly, ABC carers must protect Children from emotional, physical and sexual abuse and neglect. ABC Carers should not verbally abuse Children or beat then and ABC carers should do (CRB) checks before they can be employed by ABC care home so that children can be in good hands. Etc. Legislation.
The rehabilitation of offenders Act 1974. (legislation.gov.uk). The Act would help service users in ABC care home who have committed crimes to be rehabilitated by enabling criminal convictions with some exceptions to be spent or ignored after a rehabilitation period. For example, crimes committed by mentally sick service users could be dealt with differently. Human Rights Act 1998. (Elizabeth et al. 2010). The Act protects rights given under the European convention on human rights. This Act points out that everyone has a right to live. In the ABC care home under the Human rights Act 1998 (equality humanrights.com) service users should be given a chance to live their lives the way they want and their needs should be fulfilled. Under this Act the right to live means giving service users food, medication and shelter. etc. The Human right Act 1998 protects ABC service users from slavery and forced labour. No service users should be treated like a slave, ABC carers should not force users to do unpaid work around the ABC care home. ABC carers should not discriminate against service users under Human rights Act 1998.
Carers should treat every service user the same regardless of where they are coming from. Carers should tolerate and respect Users cultures and religions. No service users shall be punished without law. (Equality humanright.com) ABC care workers should not beat or give any other punishments to service users without court proceedings. Codes of practice (Skills for care). According to skills for care website Codes of practise is “a list of statements that describes the standards of professional conduct and practice required of social care workers as they go about their daily work”. The code of practice help to protect service users in ABC care home (Skills for care) by protecting their rights and promoting the interest of service users and Carers. ABC carers can do this by treating everyone as an individual, respecting their cultural beliefs and religions, supporting and maintaining dignity and privacy of users. 2.2 Explain how Local policies and procedures can be developed in accordance with national and policy requirements. Local policies are principles of action developed by individual care homes to help safeguard service users from abuse. These principles are developed according to the service users the care home is caring for.
For example some children’s care home principles differ from the elderly ones. Policies and procedures when developed they give employers and employees guidelines for fair and legal treatment to every service user in an organisation or care home. Policies create rules of how to run care homes and policies give ways how policies could be implemented within the care home. (www.ehow.co.uk). National policies are principles of action proposed by the government to help safeguard service users in statutory, private and voluntary organisations all around the country. ABC care home would implement the protecting patients from avoidable harm policy. (www.gov.uk/government) by using the five domains obtained from the three part definition of Quality First which states that; Quality care consist of: effectiveness, patient experience and safety. The five domains from the definition are: Preventing people from dying prematurely, ABC carers can prevent people dying prematurely by doing risk assessment, this can help find hazards within the ABC care home that could be life threatening.
For example faulty electric switches, sockets and cables could be found by risk assessing and fixed to ensure that the ABC care home is safe for service users. The second domain is enhancing quality of life for people with long term conditions (www.gov.uk/government). In ABC care home employers can help improve quality of lives of service users with long term conditions by giving them healthy food and encourage them to do exercises so that they can stay fit. Thirdly, help people to recover from episodes of ill health (www.gov.uk/government). With the ABC carers can help service users to recover from ill health by giving patients their medicine on time and by ensuring that doses are finished in the advised time. etc. Treating service users with respect, dignity and compassion policy. (www.gov.uk/government). ABC carers should treat service user with respect, this is by knocking on service users doors to get permission from them before cares can enter.
ABC carers should treat service users with dignity and compassion. ABC carers should ensure that service users are not abused and should enable service users to maintain the highest level of independence, choice and control. For example, ABC carers should ask services users what type of food they want to eat by offering users food options. “Improving care for people with dementia policy”. This policy is implemented in ABC care home by increasing diagnosis rate for people with dementia because there is a low diagnosis for people with dementia in England as whole. For example invest more money in ABC care home to improve the project by buying better toolkit to ensure that ABC employers and employees provide a better service. 2.3 The Care Standard Act 2000 was put in place by the government on 20th July 2000 and came into effect April 2002. The Act was made to help reforming the regulatory system for care services in England and wales. These services include: residential care homes, children homes, nursing homes, domiciliary care agencies, fostering and so on.
The Care Standards Act 2000 aims were to extend the regulation of social Care from two white papers published by the Government in 1998 and 1999 entitled “Modernising Social Services and Building for the future”. (www.scie.org.uk) The Act established a new independent regulatory body for Social Care, private and voluntary health care services in England known as the National Care Standards Commission (www.scie.org.uk). This was to ensure that improvements in care through the Act’s triple functions of inspections, regulation and reviewing all Social Services. “The Act established the General Social Care Council” (GSCC). (www.scie.org.uk)To regulate the quality and standards of Staff working in Social Care but was replace by the Health Professions Council (HPC) from August 2012. Another Act that helped in Social Care settings is the Safeguarding Vulnerable Group Act 2006. The Act is an important part of a bigger programme of work. It spreads across Government departments and it is created to solve the failures found by the 2004 Bichard inquiry from the Soham murders.
Recommendation 19 of the Bichard inquiry report states that; ‘new arrangements should be introduced requiring those who wish to work with children, or vulnerable Adults to be registered. The register would confirm that there is no reason why an individual should not work with these clients’. (Safeguarding Vulnerable group Act 2006 fact sheet). The Act formed a body called the Independent Barring Board (“IBB”). The IBB establishes and maintains children’s and Adults’ barred list. The Act points out offences and writes down penalties for not complying with the Act. For example if a door is meant to be kept locked and the Manager opens it he could get fined 5000 pounds or six months imprisonment if Inspectors find out.
The No Secrets policy document has guidelines on developing and implementing multi-Agency policies and procedures to protect vulnerable adults at risk of abuse. One of the No secrets principles is to recognise people who are unable to take their own decisions or protect themselves, their belongings or bodily integrity this helps to adults at risk of being abused. No Secrets’ “getting the message across” states that when it comes to employment people convicted of big offences do not have the protection of the Rehabilitation of offenders Act 1974 this could help stop adults being abused. The policy defines who is at risk, what way and what action to be taken when abuse happens to vulnerable people. The policy defines abuse as “a violation of human rights by any other person or persons”.
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/194272/No_secrets__guidance_on_developing_and_implementing_multi-agency_policies_and_procedures_to_protect_vulnerable_adults_from_abuse.pdf http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/47/pdfs/ukpga_20060047_en.pdf http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/guides/guide03/law/standards.asp https://www.gov.uk/government/policies?departments%5B%5D=department-of-health
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