Principles of positive risk taking for individuals with disabilities Outcome 1 Know the importance of risk taking in everyday life for individuals with disabilities 1.1- identify aspects of everyday life in which risk plays a part Risk Taking: individual; social; organisational; environmental
1.2- identify aspects of everyday life in which, traditionally, individuals with disabilities were not encouraged to take risks Traditional lack of encouragement: risks in everyday life; traditional roles and activities; carer controls; health and safety, compensation culture. 1.3- outline the consequences for individuals with disabilities of being prevented or discouraged from taking risks Prevention of risk taking: consequences e.g. negative, timidity, reticence, dependence, skills development, exclusion. 1.4- explain how supporting individuals to take risks can enable them to have choice over their lives to: • gain in self-confidence
• develop skills
• take an active part in their community.
Supporting risk taking: confidence building; skill developing; inclusivity; independence.
Understand the importance of positive, person-centred risk assessment 2.1- explain how a person-centred approach to risk assessment can have a more positive outcome than traditional approaches Approaches: traditional medical model of disability, the person as an object, restricting, inhibiting, negative; person-centred social model of disability, enabling, empowering, informing, positive. 2.2- identify the features of a person-centred approach to risk assessment Person-centred approach: decision making processes; risk minimisation and preparation; short-term risk, long-term gain; guidance, support and involvement; promoting opportunity 2.3- describe ways in which traditional risk assessments have tended to have a negative focus. Traditional risk assessments, a negative focus: situation avoidance; potential for harm; social and cultural barriers, discrimination, exclusion.
Know how legislation and policies are relevant to positive risk taking 3.1- identify legislation and policies which promote the human rights of individuals with disabilities Legislation and policies: ‘Valuing People Now’ 2001; ‘Putting People First’ 2007; Human Rights Act 1998; Mental Health Act 2007; Mental Capacity Act 2005; the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (Amendment) Regulations 2003; Disability Discrimination Act 2005;
Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults policies.
3.2- describe how to use a human rights based approach to risk management. Human rights based approach to risk management: responsibility balancing; advocacy; direct payments; personalised services; person centred planning, support planning
Understand how to support individuals with disabilities in decisions about risk-taking 4.1- explain the connection between an individual’s right to take risks and their responsibilities towards themselves and others Rights and responsibilities: maximising quality of life while maintaining safety; responsibilities to self and others, social, emotional, physical. 4.2- outline how the principle of ‘duty of care’ can be maintained whilst supporting individuals to take risks Duty of Care: best interest; defensible decision making; contextualising behaviour; identification of positive and negative risks 4.3- describe ways of enabling individuals with disabilities to make informed choices about taking risks Enabling informed choices: use of illustrated templates, flow charts, information sheets; technology; the right to make ‘bad’ decisions; planning alternatives 4.4- outline the particular challenges that may arise when supporting individuals to make decisions if they have had limited previous experience of making their own decisions Limited experience: perception and understanding of risk; task analysis; perception of the views of others.
4.5- explain the potential positive and negative consequences of the choices made about taking risks Consequences of choice: positive and negative; to the individual; to others; social, moral, legal 4.6-describe what action to take if an individual decides to take an unplanned risk that places him/herself or others in immediate or imminent danger Unplanned risks: progress checks; monitoring; intervention; explanations; evaluation; future planning 4.7 explain why it is important to record and report all incidents, discussions and decisions concerning risk taking. Reporting and recording: importance and requirements; accountability; responsibility; individual, collective; confidentiality
Understand how to support individuals with disabilities to manage identified risks 5.1- explain the importance of including risks in the individual’s support plan Support plans: recognising valued life-style; identifying risk awareness; written consent 5.2- explain why it is important to review risks in the individual’s support plan Reviewing risks: importance and value, progression of individual 5.3- outline why it is important to communicate and work in a consistent way with all those supporting the individual Communicating and working with others: shared values; information sharing; goals and targets; multi-disciplinary working; problems with inconsistencies 5.4- describe ways of supporting individuals with disabilities to test out the risk they wish to take. Testing risks: contingency planning; experiencing with support; reducing support.