History and development of guidance around the world varies greatly based on how each country and local communities perceived its role and importance in every individual as well as in building a nation. Lack of trained personnel and sympathetic administrators, lack of funds, and misconception about guidance were some of the factors which resulted into the sluggish progress of guidance. But despite of these hindrances, guidance has come to stay as a newer field of educational psychology. The movement of guidance has been spread in some countries, including the Philippines.
This report is aimed to discuss the history and development of guidance specifically its present status in some countries particularly in the Philippines.
Guidance in the United States
In the United States, the school counselling profession began as a vocational guidance movement in the beginning of 20th century. Jesse B. Davis is considered the first to provide systematic school guidance program. In 1907, he became a principal of a high school and encouraged the school English teachers to use compositions and lessons to relate career interests, develop character and avoid behavioural problems. The first organized guidance movement which assist young people was started by a civic-minded leader, Frank Parsons, Father of Vocational Guidance, in Boston, Massachussetts.
He started as a volunteer in the Civic Service House in Boston to observe maladjusted young men and women. Most of them were out of school and performed work which they were not qualified. He organized the Breadwinners’ Institute in 1905 with a planned program for vocational guidance. Parsons together with Meyer Bloomfield next organized the Vocational Bureau of Boston where “vocational counselor” and “vocational guidance” were used for the first time.
From the 1920s to the 1930s, school counseling and guidance grew because of the rise of progressive education in schools. This movement emphasized personal, social, moral development. Many schools reacted to this movement as anti-educational, saying that schools should teach only the fundamentals of education. This, combined with the economic hardship of the Great Depression, led to decline in school counseling and guidance.
In the 1940s, the U.S. used psychologists and counselors to select, recruit, and train military personnel which propelled the counseling movement in schools by providing ways to test students and meet their needs. Schools accepted these military tests openly.
Guidance Movements in Europe
In Great Britain, placement work is carried out for boys and girls who leave the elementary school, having reached the age of 14 or 15 which is the end of the compulsory education period, or 16 years which is the secondary-school-leaving age. This is undertaken by the Ministry of Labor through the Juvenile Employment Exchange.
Same with the United States, province in Great Britain suffered a setback during the World War II because young workers could readily obtain employment without vocational guidance. In France, schools are highly regimented subject to strict supervision, and under the Ministry of Education in Paris. There is no provision for guidance in the secondary schools Vocational guidance was recognized in 1922 when guidance services became established offices. The National Institute for Vocational Guidance founded in 1930 served as the guiding force in Vocational Guidance which aims to train vocational counselors. In Germany, the movement has a longer history than in other European countries.
During the first Reich, vocational guidance enabled boys to find jobs and aided the government to relocate workers where they were needed. Under the second Reich, individuals were given a taste of freedom of personality in a democracy. But during the third Reich, guidance was given only in the interests of the State. Today, elementary school pupils receive the most benefits in vocational guidance. However, Germany does not have a systematic training program for guidance workers. Counselors are appointed if they are successful in their respective occupations.
In Russia, the entire philosophy behind their educational system is work, work, and more work. Work activities are integrated in every school program in order to produce efficient and loyal workers. The vocational guidance bureau handles counseling programs. Each bureau serves a definite number of schools through arrangements among the guidance bureau, the Commissariat of Education, and agricultural and industrial enterprises sponsoring the schools.
Guidance Movement in the Philippines
In the Philippines, guidance is said to have both an accidental and incidental origin. Teachers and principals have assisted pupils to make choices and to make self-adjustments. They also treat problems of misbehavior among pupils in the classroom and on the playground, including the cutting of classes or low or inconsistent grades.
In 1932, with so much concern with cases of student discipline, emotional, academic, and vocational problems, Dr. Sinforoso Padilla started a Psychological Clinic and was operates until 1941. About the same time, counseling tests were administered to the convicts in Bilibid Prison in 1934 and to the inmates at Welfareville in 1939. Psychological tests were also used for guidance purposes in private schools. In school year 1939-1940, the deans from four public schools were chosen and assigned to look after the behavior and conduct of students who were referred to them by the classroom teachers.
In November, 1945, the first Guidance Institute was opened and the Bureau of Public School Teachers started to send teachers as pensionados for observation and study of guidance services abroad. Behind its success that helped much in making Filipino education officials guidance-conscious were the guidance experts like Dr. Roy G. Bone, George H. Bennett, UNESCO specialists in guidance, Edward S. Jones, and Dr. Henry McDaniel of Stanford University.
In its report of 1951, Congress proposed the establishments of a functional guidance and counseling program to assist students in choosing their course and help them solve their personality problems.
In 1952, division superintendents of schools recommended the establishment of guidance services in the public schools. It was the Division of City Schools, Manila who has the best developed guidance program, and provincial divisions have started to set up similar programs.
In 2004, Guidance and Couseling Act is hereby declared as a policy of the state to promote the improvement, advancement, and protection of the guidance and counseling profession by undertaking and instituting measures that will result in professional, ethical, relevant, efficient, and effective guidance and counseling services for the development and enrichment of individuals and group lives. The state recognizes the important role of guidance counselors in nation-building and promotes the sustained development of a reservoir of guidance counselors whose competence have been determined by honest and credible licensure examinations and whose standards of professional practice and service are world-class and internationally recognized, globally competitive through preventive regulatory measures, programs and activities that foster their continuing professional growth.
At present, the so-called guidance counselor is very important in academic institutions who would provide necessary services to the students with problematic situations personally and academically. But not all schools can provide a guidance counselor because of the lack of competent and registered guidance counselor. In some schools, the school head serves as an administrator at the same time a guidance counsellor. While in some other school, designated a values education teacher as their guidance counselor.
Countries where guidance originated has found useful and benefited its importance in shaping every individual and in the whole nation-building. As discussed earlier, there were misconceptions in guidance eventually during its first implementations in schools. This is because of the beliefs that schools should only teach fundamentals of education. But for those people who founded the need of guidance in the life of every person, they organized certain institutions where proper guidance shall be treated and shall provide necessary actions that would help a person who needed guidance.
They found out that guidance in schools are very vital hence, the Philippines in particular, declared an Act that would strengthen Guidance and Counseling that ensure effective guidance that would empower people in nation-building. Guidance is an act or process of guiding. It is a process by which students are given advice on how to deal with emotional conflicts and personal problems both in school and how to incorporate the same in their daily life. Indeed, the efforts of guidance experts who founded it are immeasurable.
Fundamentals of Guidance and Counseling, pp. 19-23
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