From Scientific to Administrative
Back around 1860, Henri Fayol, a then-young engineer, began working at a coal mine in France. While working at the mines, he noticed that managing the miners was not an easy job. Managing was not as effective as it could be. Managers had few resources and tools to better manage people. At the time, Frederick Winslow Taylor, founder of the school of scientific management, was making strides in maximizing productivity by focusing on the work and worker relationship. In other words, Taylor believed that there was a science to work. If workers worked more like machines, there would be increased productivity.
Frederick Winslow Taylor founded the school of scientific management Unlike Taylor’s scientific management theory, Fayol believed that it was more than just work and workers. Managers needed specific roles in order to manage work and workers. This became known as the administrative school of management and was founded on the six functions, or roles, of management:
These roles, used as a process, focused on the entire organization rather
than just the work. Once broken down into smaller parts, the six functions evolved into Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management. In this lesson, we will focus on the first seven principles:
1.Division of Work
4.Unity of Command
5.Unity of Direction
6.Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest 7.Remuneration
While Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management are not as widely used as they once were, it is important to understand how the foundation of administrative management theory was developed to address the needs of the times. This macro approach was the first of its time. Let’s not forget, Taylor did not focus on the human element. Henri Fayols principles of management focus on the human element His scientific approach to work focused on building a better, stronger, faster and more productive team through physical elements. Fayol didn’t see it that way. Fayol saw workers as humans possessing elements that required a more general approach to getting the work done. He saw it as a whole organizational effort. Principles Explained
Let’s take each principle and use examples to better understand how these principles work together to create an administrative management mindset. Let’s use Fayol and the Principles, a rock band, to help us better understand the first seven of the 14 Principles of Management.
1. Division of Work: When employees are specialized, output can increase because they become increasingly skilled and efficient.
Fayol and the Principles is made up of four members, including Fayol. Each band member specializes in a specific instrument or talent. Fayol is the lead singer, while the other members play instruments. The band is able to produce quality music because each performs the job in the band that he or she is most specialized in. If we were to mix it up a bit and put Fayol on
bass guitar and another member on singing – neither of whom possesses the skill to perform the job – the sound would be much different.
2. Authority: Managers must have the authority to give orders, but they must also keep in mind that with authority comes responsibility. Fayol and the Principles understand that they should specialize in their specific areas; however, there needs to be a leader. Fayol assumes the role as leader and gives everyone orders. He says ‘Play this. Do that.’ But with that comes responsibility. He knows that, whatever task he delegates to the band, he must make sure that the task is completed, that the task is done in a productive way and that it yields results. 3. Discipline: Discipline must be upheld in organizations, but methods for doing so can vary.
From time to time, the band members do not perform to Fayol’s standard. Even though Fayol looks at the organization as a whole organizational effort, he also knows that he must administer discipline for ineffectiveness. Two of Fayol’s band members decided to take a break from practice to play a competitive game of Pin the Tail on the Donkey. He must administer swift discipline in line with the offense. He also knows that there is no one discipline that can be levied against the band members. It must be done on a case-by-case basis. In this case, the two band members were penalized pay for the time spent playing a game when they should have been practicing for their show.
4. Unity of Command: Employees should have only one direct supervisor. Multiple people sometimes give orders. In the case of the rock band, Fayol is in charge. This is expressed by the name of the band and implied by the orderly way in which work is delegated. Fayol is the only person to give direction.
5. Unity of Direction: Teams with the same objective should be working under the direction of one manager and using one plan. This will ensure that action is properly coordinated.
Just like unity of command, it is important for Fayol to keep the band on a
single track, course or direction. One manager. One plan. One vision.
6. Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest: The interests of one employee should not be allowed to become more important than those of the group. This includes managers. Fayol knows how to maintain a balance between personal endeavors and those of the greater good. Fayol and the Principles are a rock band. This is their purpose, their identity. If one of the members feels differently, regardless of how strongly he feels, this self-interest, or individual interest, is not more important than those of the band and its members. 7. Remuneration: Employee satisfaction depends on fair remuneration for everyone. This includes financial and non-financial compensation. When it comes to payday, Fayol knows that he must pay the band and pay them fairly. This includes money and perks. It is tempting to take all of the backstage perks and keep them for himself, like free T-shirts and sodas, but by sharing the rewards, Fayol has a much more satisfied team.
In summary, Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management serve the organization as a whole. By dividing the work into specialized and specific jobs, workers are able to work more efficiently. Small management units who oversee functional areas of the organization are now able to assign work and hold workers accountable for their production. This makes it easier to measure productivity. Once a system of accountability is in place and productivity can be monitored, it is easier to determine who is performing and who is not performing. Managers are able to selectively and individually discipline workers who fall short of goals quickly and in the correct measure. Having just one manager assigned to a team takes away any task confusion. Workers have only one supervisor directing them. With only one supervisor directing work, it is easy to motivate employees to buy into one plan. This minimizes self-interest. With only one manager managing the work of one team, which shares one vision, compensating the team can be done fairly.