The Principles of Scientific Management is a monograph or a specialist work published by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1911. Scientific management is a new thinking on management. The literary meaning of scientific management is performing the work of management in a scientific manner. In other words, discarding the traditional approaches to management and adopting newer and more scientific approaches in their place is called scientific management. Taylor has said that before commencing any work, a manager should first analyze it thoroughly, and only then take any decision, first let’s try to understand the principles of scientific management by Taylor in brief then we will see why these scientific principles differ from the ordinary principles. Scientific management by Taylor consisted of four principles-
1.They develop a science for each element of a man’s work, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.
2.They scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the workman, whereas in the past he chose his own work and trained himself as best he could.
3.They heartily cooperate with the men so as to ensure all of the work being done in accordance with the principles of the science which has been developed.
4.There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between the management and the workmen. The management take over all work for which they are better fitted than the workmen, while in the past almost all of the work and the greater part of the responsibility were thrown upon the men. Now let’s try to see why principles of scientific management differ from the ordinary principles. Below are the points where we can see the important principles of scientific management and the difference between principles of scientific management and ordinary principles. •Decisions are made on the basis of facts and by the application of scientific decisions in scientific management principles in contrast to ordinary principles.
•Scientific management principle suggests that work assigned to any employee should be observed, analyzed with respect to each and every element and part and time involved in it in contrast to ordinary principles.
•Scientific management brings replacement of ordinary rule of thumb by the use of method of enquiry, investigation, data collection, analysis and framing of rules.
•In the Scientific management, management has to provide opportunities for development of workers having better capabilities in contrast to ordinary principles.
•According to Taylor efforts should be made to develop each employee to his greatest level and efficiency & prosperity in the Scientific management principle.
•Physical, mental & other requirement should be specified for each and every job.
•There should be scientifically designed procedure for the selection of workers in contrast to ordinary principle. •Workers should be selected & trained to make them fit for the job.
•The management has to provide opportunities for development of workers having better capabilities.
•According to Taylor efforts should be made to develop each employee to his greatest level and efficiency & prosperity.
•Taylor believed in co-operation and not individualism.
•It is only through co-operation that the goals of the enterprise can be achieved efficiently.
•There should be no conflict between managers & workers.
•Taylor believed that interest of employer & employees should be fully harmonized so as to secure mutually understanding relations between them.
•This principle determines the concrete nature of roles to be played by different level of managers & workers.
•The management should assume the responsibility of planning the work whereas workers should be concerned with execution of task.
•Thus planning is to be separated from execution.