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Primary education Essay

Examination ethics impact on discipline in order to enhance the performance of the student has become the subject matter of the day in Nigeria society. It constitute to the problem on performance of the student in school. Ethics therefore can simply be defined as the laid down rule and regulation of conduct, guideline, principle of behavior based upon the ideals of morality to which a group or organization agreed to regulate their behavior. For the purpose of this paper, we are viewing ethics in terms of expected behavior during examination.

According to Omotune (1992 as cited in Alutu and Alutu 2003} institutional arrangement required certain norms which is known as the “code of conduct” of examination designed by author concerned with examining the candidates for the special examination to ensure absolute integrity of the result. In occasion, where these rules are not follow according either by the student, teacher, it will lead to examinational irregularities and malpractices. This will pollute the results of the student in examination poses a great threat to the validity and reliability of examination result and certification.

In Nigeria, the last two decade have witness an alarming rate of crisis on examination misconduct especially in secondary schools and tertiary institutions. In view of the above one will like to ask a question about what is discipline. The word discipline is derived from the Latin word disco meaning “I learn and plane in Latin word mean learning must processed in proper order”. It is therefore implies that discipline emphasize on efficient and general commitment to learning on the quality of student performance. There are two types of discipline known as self discipline and external discipline.

Self discipline is the one exercise over oneself while external discipline is an externally imposed standard, control on individual. All these are supposed to bring about positive change in the behavior of individual in the society. For the purpose of this research, indiscipline on the other hand is considered as the behavior which goes contrary to the school rules and regulations, and these behaviors ought to attract sanction from the school authority. The school administration is a vital focus as far as indiscipline is concerned.

This is because; rules and regulations are to be enforced in the schools. Ones should not lose sight of the leadership style, could mark the progress of the school. The possible implications of indiscipline among student performance and among other include: 1. Lack of respect for the constituted authority. 2. Lack of respect for those in power. 3. Indiscipline student. 4. Poor performance of student. 5. Student demonstration. 6. Intra and inter school hostilities. 7. Student riots, protest and lawful demonstration. 8.

Teaching becomes hazardous as teachers are more than ever before expose to violent attack from the very student; they are trying to impact knowledge in to them. The nation behind enforcing the disciplinary action, the above reasons now make the teacher to sit down, fold their arms and leave the student to wonder on their own without much guidance and control. From these, one can arrived at the fact that parent aid and abet examination malpractice directly or indirectly, they ever go to the extent of bribing their way through to ensure that their word get unearned grades.

The teachers on their own part encourage examination malpractice because they lack the zeal to work and at the end they want to be praised for the job, which was not the way it supposes to be done. Examination malpractices are not a recent phenomenon of which it is peculiar to Nigeria or Africa, but it is a global issue (Ikupa, 1997). However, the alarming rate of its increases in Nigeria, calls for novel ways to redress the situation. Examination misconduct has some social and psychological dimension, which the counselor should address with holistic intervention.

Good grades in any examination are gate way to further education and youth are well constructed the examination ethics should be adhered to. According to Omoluabi(1993) and uzoka(1993) our value system has been broken down completely and so adults and youth are like moral scruples. The general emphasis in our society today is on materialism, bribery, corruption, cultism, promiscuity, fraud, violence certificate, racketeering and a host of other social vices.

Aina (1996) stated that ethic and integrity are the solution of all the examination ills. Hence, the social, political and economic structure of this nation is dependent on the promotion of examination ethics, and that hard work is a virtue which once cultivated, take one through life and forms the foundation for an enduring success. In O. T. C. W of the ever increasing incidence of examination misconduct of examination in Nigeria, this study was undertaken to assess the perception of student toward examination ethics. 1. 2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In view of ever increasing problem of examination malpractice, mass cheating, inscription, personality, connected, collusion, assaults, on examination official among others, there is no doubt that there has been a steady decline in the level of student performance in public. Examination such as; Joint Admission Matriculation Board (JAMB), West African Examination Council (WAEC). This pathetic situation believed to be the cumulative impact examination ethics on student performance in secondary school. This study was undertaken to assess the believed perception of student towards examination, indiscipline and ethics.

In addition, from the results of this study counseling intervention would be designed that the school counselor are expected to apply in the maintenances of ethic with the view of reducing the incidence of examination malpractices through the solution, these study attempted to seek, and such solution from the basic of our recommendation. 1. 3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY. The objectives of this research work include: 1. To facilitate the modification of student attitude and believe that may be socially undesirable and inimical to academic process.

2. To strive to maintain peace and order during examination in Dekina Local Government in general. 3. To maintain ethics with a view of reducing the incidence of examination malpractice through inculcating healthy attitude in the secondary school. 4. To check the offences which are bad among the students and which is the examination misconduct. 1. 4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The significant of the study is that, after the whole exercise, the result of the study will be of help to the students, parent and school authority. 1.

The school authority from the suggestion made for the problems, make necessary adjustment to the school program that can enhance the performance of the school. 2. Also the study will recommend modern methods of handling examination ethics problem so as to minimize examination misconduct in secondary school. 3. The result of the student will help to effect necessary changes that will bring about better understanding between the students and government agencies. 4. The study will be useful to the parents and guidance by being able to maintain peace and order during and after examination. 1. 5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The data of the students and teachers were collected from eight (8) schools out of the 26 secondary schools in Dekina Local Government area of Kogi state, thus the possibility of generating, finding and result reduced. 1. 6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY There are some limitation faced during the research work, this include: 1. Financial problem is one of the effective limitations to the research project. 2. The researcher have problem of transportation system, which stand as a barer to reach the research place on time. 3. There is also limitation in releasing the project materials by the school authority. 4.

The study was also restricted to the area like attitudes of students, teachers, parent and government, teaching method school environment and institutional document. 1. 7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS The following where generated to guide the study. a. Student indiscipline toward examination is a reflection of the societal value. b. The home is a strong factor of student indiscipline towards their education. c. Student attitude is a strong factor of their indiscipline towards examination performance. 1. 8DEFINITION OF TERMS Examination according to oxford advanced learners dictionary(special price, new edition and fifth edition)by A.

S Horn by O. S(1995)is a formal written, spoken or practical test especially at schools or colleges to see how much the student knows about a subject or what they have learnt. Balogun(1990) defined examination as the process through which students are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within the specific period. Ethics on the other hand is defined as the study or branch of philosophy that deals with what is good and what is bad, what is right or wrong and the application knowledge of what you have learnt about ethics (marald 1991).

Ethics are laid down guide line, rules and regulation, code of conduct or principle of behavior based upon the ideals of morality to which a group or organization agreed to regulate their behavior. Discipline is a Latin word “disco” which control orderliness. It equally returns to efficient character molding and overall commitments of students, people to their learning skills which ranges from vocalization corporal punishment. It also mean training of the mind that lead to natural awareness, recognition of one’s duties and responsibility and what is expected from the nation in return for doing these duties.

Indiscipline on the other can be seen as the behavior which goes contrary to the school rules and regulation and which ought to attract sanitation from the school authority. It can also be seen as a mode of life, not in conformity with the rules and non-subjection to control. Thus, any wrong behavior before, during, or after any examination can be seen as indiscipline. Source: Field work analysis: august 2013 CHAPTHER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 THE CONCEPT OF EXAMINATION IN ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION.

The word assessment is the process of gathering information from a variety of sources concluding assignment, demonstration, project, performance and test that accurately reflects on how well a student is achieving the curriculum expectations in a course. A part of assessment, teachers provide student with descriptive feed-back that guide their effort towards improvement or motive assessment will be used on a frequent and continuity for academic success.

Examples of formative assessment tools used in this work are as follows. A. Anecdotal comments and written feedback by the teachers on reports, test, home-work, calculation and assignment. B. Verbal feedback from classmate through class discussion and group problem solving assignment. C. Weekly quizzes to formally assess student performance and understanding of each unit. D. Teacher- student, individual conference at various times throughout the term. E. Self and peer assessment of oral presentation and group collaboration.

Evaluation on, the other hand can be refer to the process of judging the quality of student Work on the basis of established criteria and assigning a value to represent that quality. In some secondary schools the value assigned will be in form of a percentage grade, Summative evaluation will be used nearer to the end of a teaching or learning unit to determine student performance in a designated learning task and report on student performance. The example of summative assessment tools used in this research are as follows. A.

Tasks specific rubrics for written or a land visual assignment. B. Constructed and selected response task(quizzes mid-unit and end of by units task) C. Marking Schemes, check list and rating scales for presentation, group collaboration assignment and individual calculation or problem solving task. 2. 2 EXAMINATION INTEGRITY AND ETHICS. According to American student, they differ in the ethics ideologies that they endorse, ranging from a pragmatics situation based on ethics (Mccabe 1992) to a principled, universities orientation to ethics (Schlenker and Wowra 2004).

Many self confessed cheaters endorse a form of situation based on pragmatism that justifiers lying and cheating as acceptable forms of behavior. These students are regarded as ethical pragmatist who engage in neutralization tactics like euphemistic language (e. g every one has to cheat nowadays to get ahead) in order to disengage the implication of their un-ethical acts from the designed identity as a “good “course student who generally follow the rules (Syles and Matza 1968).

In contrast to the pragmatic student who is free to engage in whatever behavior will minimize his or her happiness in each Academic situation, or principle, student are required to each, always tell the truth as well as avoid cheating on their exams and planarization ideas from others. As a result of this, principle student may be particularly susceptible to negative moral emotion of quit (Tangney, 2002) and may also experience anxiety and depression for standing by and ethical standard despite interpersonal pressure to eschew them.

(e. g. President Lincoln experienced recurrent bouts out of dispersion in his life time, Miller, 2002). Yet principled student do not have to concern themselves with the possibility of interpersonal relationship rejection or damage to their academic career that inherent rises of a pragmatic position. 2. 3 THE ROLES OF DISCIPLINE ON EXAMINATION INTEGRITY. The roles of discipline on examination integrity are discussed below by different authors. 1. Harvard has no honour code inspite of its extremely several punishments for plagiarism.

Harvard emphasizes on bad ethics saying, if someone cheat during test or borrow anything from a secondary sources without acknowledging it in a paper, he will face the rig or of an unsympathetic administrative board. 2. Freshmen work program ensure that all student knows the period of academic dishonesty and the hand books of student is very serious in its pronouncement, of the penalties for this most serious misconduct in exam. 3. Harvard crimes “student who for whatever reason, submit any work which is not their own or without any clear attribution to its sources, will ordinarily be required to withdraw from the colleges” 4.

An honor code would balance out this negatives structure of discipline by making student affirms their belief by the value of integrity. If every student were required to sign a document at the beginning of their careers at Harvard that set out his commitment to academic honest, then havard rules against plagiarism would adopt a different tone. 5. Instead of punishing student just for transgression code of academic conduct, Harvard would also discipline student for not holding to their word.

If student had to sign their examination booklet before they handed it in, then those who cheated would not merely break the rules, they would be undermining their own integrity. The regular act of signing one’s examination booklet would instill a sense of honesty in student which the rules against cheating could not do. 2. 4 CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF EXAMINATION ETHICS. One of the objectives of Dekina local government which is the selected case study in this research is to prepare the young one to face future challenges and develop them to meet nation’s man power requirements.

Schools need to conduct examination as a yard stick for assessment; it is the most practical way of assessment in education. Maduca (1993) defined examination as the way to ascertain how much of a subject in a particular field of study the candidate has mistuned. Hornby (1995) defined examination as a formal test of somebody’s knowledge or ability in a particular exercise. Balogun (1999) also defined it as the process through which student are evaluated or tested to find out the quality of knowledge they have acquired within a specified period of time.

Examination could be internal or external, it could be oral written or both, examples of internal examination are; continuous assessment test, terminal, semester and annual or promotional examination. Examples of external (public) examination which is common in Dekina Local Government secondary school are; 1. Common entrance examination conducted by west African examination council (WAEC) and 2. National Examination Council (NECO) the joint administration matriculation board (JAMB) and other which are conducted in the state capitals: 1.

National Teachers Institution (NTI) conducted admission test into tertiary institution, while Nation Business and Technical Examination Board (NABTEB) conduct professional examination for teachers and technical respectively. Examination Ethics is any wrong doing or good conduct before, during or after any examination, Although, one may not be able to rule out examination ethics, in the past, the current trend is alarming, and calls for proper management in order to rid the student system of its consequence where as in the past student trend to tide this act, Now they advertise them with positive blatancy.

What other thought that is right to draw well across the modern biography reveals Traced back examination ethics to 1914; he further reported that, in the university about 25% of the student interviewed admitted to have engaged in one form of examination ethics occur in both internal and external examination. In short, it has become an epidemic in the nation’s educational system which needs a prompt attention; the situation of examination conducted is so embarrassing to the nation.

Any person who fraudulently or with interest cheater secure any unfair advantage to himself or any other person or in abuse of his office, produces sellers or buyers or otherwise deal with any question paper intended for the examination of person at any examination or commit any of the offence specified in Section 3(27)© of this decrees shall be guilty of an offence and on these must be understood, harnessed, and be catered for, by the school , student involvement in examination misconduct has become perennial and institutionalized. It is a testimonial for the flawed process of admission into secondary school and fleeted in multi faceted crisis in the nation educational system.

Moral institution is detailed information, which concern the principles of right and wrong behavior, the study of moral development has become a likely growth within the social sciences. Theories have maintained that human morality springs from emotional species is no emphasis on the development of the whole individual that can lay out moral. All children are born with a running state on the part to moral development. These children should be filled with useful information.

Education is expected to provide a full training for children, and the training involves examination ethics and other forms and assessment from acquisition skill. This is the more reasons why examination must well manage. Farrant (1964) stated that education on certain aspect of the child make up to the detriment of the others. The focus of this research is on how moral institution could be used for managing examination ethics schools. Dimensions of examination ethics; year in year out, student comes up with dimension of examination ethics: this is the more reason why drastic action must be taken.

The instance of examination malpractices vary, they range from impersonal, leakage of questions, tampering with result, official and security, personnel , changed in supervising examination , parent are not left out of the business. SOME OF THIS DIMENSION IS DISCUSSED BELOW: i. Bringing of foreign materials into examinational: this is a situation hall Notes, textbook and other prepared material. Sometimes student bring into the hall unauthorized materials like sophisticated and scientific calculator or four figure table. ii.

Assistance from educational is take holder; examination stake holder include parent, teachers, lecturers, supervisors, security agent, printers and staff of examination goes to any length in buying question papers for the children while some other buy certificate for their children. Supervisors collide with teachers to come around to teach the student during examination period, lecturers or teachers releasing question paper or give under sever marks or allowing students to illegally retake examination papers, security, agents printers and staff of examination bodies also sell out question papers.

Afolabi (1998) stated that leakage is one of the problems which appear to defy all solution; its persistence despite methods of blocking the loopholes is an indication of the malaise and corruption in the society. iii. Irregular activities inside and outside examination halls: students who had the mind of cheat exhibit strange and whole some behavior. They use various methods such as: Stealing, converting, substituting or misappropriating the script of other candidates. Substituting worked script during or after an examination.

Tearing of the past question paper on answer booklet during the examination to enhance cheating. Seeking and receiving helps form other candidates. iv. Impression: this is a situation where by a candidate sits in an examination for another candidate herby pretending to be the real or the original candidate. Impression is becoming rampant even among the schools candidates. Afolabi (1998) listed various methods that have been denied by the students, these include: a. Passinm as a bonafide candidate: impersonating, under-graduates and graduate engage in this type of cheating.

b. Entry for similar subject: The plot is hatched right from the entry stage by making the impersonators to enter for the same subject and sit for the examination in the hall with the candidates he writes scripts before submitting. c. Multiple entries: that is, candidate’s struggles unnecessarily for live question paper at the beginning of a paper, which are then, passed to outside for assistance. Also candidates deliberately come into the hall with the sole aim of smuggling the question paper out as so9on as the paper starts and bringing the solution inside late. v.

Insults or assault on examination officials: there are cases of students insulting examination officials as they carry out sometimes students disturb the conduct of examination to poor preparation. vi. Electronically assisted ethics: in recent times it has been discovered that students make use of electronic gadget to cheat during examination, such thing as unauthorized scientific calculations organizers, compact disc (the smallest size) and mobile phones (GSM) to take advantage of others. vii. Collusion: this is a situation where two or more candidate agrees to receive or give assistance to each other.

If it is verbal, this called ECOMOG or ECOWAS Maduabum (1998) identified the use of tunes and so on, which are also common among students. Afolabi (1998) opine that collusion involves exchange of scripts, passing note for help from outside and inside the hall. Delaying commencements of examination in one center to obtain question paper from nearby center which was started collusion, arising from briefs or threat to the lives and or property of supervisor. Viii mass cheating: candidate in an examination hall at times are massively involves one or one of the irregularities of one mentioned.

X personality connection: there are cases where some influential students make use of godfathers in politics, economic high errors, parents and cult members to influence the outcome of examination. The dangers or consequences of examination ethics are s follows: A. Perpetual condemnation of the conscience. B. Not being able to defend the certificates (failure in job performance) C. Possibility of unfulfilled dreams and vision, if the students is rusticated from school or terminated at the working place. D.

Spill-over effect borne by parents and other relatives of culprits. E. The culprits may be initiated into a system of dishonesty and corrupt practices by which they become hardened. F. Its make nonsense of the educational system and it militates. Against the countries goal of technological advancement. G. It discredits certificate issued by national examination bodies and institutions of higher learning and the nation as a whole. H. It makes student to lose their ability to study or work hard in their studies. These are some ways in which examination are to be managed.

There are certain truths that6 every students need to be reminded from time to time and the consequences of examination ethics one of them. Every effort must be made to stop it as fast as possible before it becomes serious problem in the society and even the secondary schools in Dekina local government area in which is the selected case study in this research work. The following steps will help in managing examination bodies and schools to reduce unethical acts. 1. All staffs of the examination bodies should be well paid so that they will be enticed with the money.

2. Posting of supervisors should be changed daily or weekly basis. 3. Effort should be made to inspect all examination center at least one daily. 4. Parent and communities should train up their children imbibe the traditional values of honesty, hard work, fairness and uprightness home and to be completed by schools. 5. Government should provide a learning conducive environment in schools by providing learning facilities and enhanced remuneration for teachers. 6. Enough resources must be made available for the conduct of examination.

(Ene and Osoula, 2008). 7. Examination bodies, school administration and government should encourage individuals and groups towards prevention of examination ethics. 8. Governments should be serious with the act 33 of 199 constitutions and enforce it. (Fagbeme 1998). 9. There should be proper orientation on examination ethic s and its consequences for all new students in all institutions at the resumption. 10. External examination bodies should publish the rules and regulations guiding their examination and student must be compelled to have a copy.

The dimension of examination ethics and its current status have been discussed. Also the researchers books into the dangers ahead if the epidemic is not curbed. The researcher has also identified moral institutions and agents through which it could be disseminated to students as a way of managing the examination ethics. If all effort is not made towards managing the examination in schools or in secondary schools, the implication is that, bad ethics will increase and certificate issued at all level will become useless, not recognized both locally and internationally.

The entire secondary schools in Dekina Local Government, which is the case study and the nation entirely, will be providing half-baked graduates. 2. 5 THE IMPACT OF EXAMINTION ETHICS ON THE QUALITY OR PERFORMANCE OF STUDENT IN KOGI STATE. The following are the impact of examination ethics on the quality or students performance identify by Runa (1998). 1. Examination ethics viewed out code of moral conduct that will engender good behaviours in any given examination. 2. Ethics assist the authorities of the schools to discharge law making on examination. 3.

Examination ethics impact student performance by making provision for self reliance, dignity of labour social justice and discipline leaders (teachers, lectures etc ) 4. Examination ethics ensure orderliness conductive and good behavior before, during and after the examination. 5. The examiners good communication may also impact the performance of students. 6. Examination ethics impact the student performance by employing the caliber of qualified and skilled teachers and management in the school. Source: Field work analysis August 201 CHAPTER THREE 3. 0 HISTORY OF CASE STUDY.

Government day secondary school Dekina came in to being in1974 as government teachers college Under Kwara State and under the principal ship of Mr Omotosho O. O. the trend continued till 1995. The name of the school was later changed from government teachers college to government day secondary school under the principal-ship of Mr. Manaba J. A. with the population of one hundred and twenty (120) students. The principal aims of the school were to train teachers who should go to primary school and teach pupils, secondly, to improve educational standard of the citizens.

And also, to bring civilization to the people at the local level. FUNCTIONS The number one function of the school is to impact knowledge to the young one’s aid to train for the future representative or to become leaders of tomorrow. Secondly to create and enable environment for teacher and student to interact together OBJECTIVE Below as some of the specify objective of government day secondary school. 1. To bring development and educational standard to the people or the communities. 2. To provide a two way channel of communication between the community and the school management.

3. To facilitate the modification of student attitudes and believe that may be socially undesirable and inimical to academics process POPULATION The population consist of all worker both academics and non-academics staff. It comprises of principal, vice-principal, administration, teaching staff, non-teaching staff and students. FUNDING Government day secondary school, Dekina is founded by Kogi state government. The state government pays all the workers both teaching and non-teaching staff. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT DAY SECONDARY SCHOOL, DEKINA.

Principal Chief Accounting offficer Vice principal Academic vice principal Administration Non–teachingstaff Teaching Staff Prefect Prefect Students Students SOURCE: Field Survey, August 2013 3. 1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. Research methodology is defined as a set of method used for study activities in a particular subject or process of arriving at a dependable solution to problem through the planned and systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of data. This chapter deals with the procedure used by the researcher to collect data.

The procedure used for this research work is based on direct administration of questionnaire for both students and teachers. This method is adopted to find out how the factors contained in the questionnaires could be seen in respect of the impact of examination, ethics on the quality of products of post-primary educational institutions in kogi state. Secondary school with special reference to Dekina local government area of Kogi state. QUESTIONNAIRE Tick where appropriate 1. The introduction of government day secondary school encourages students into examination malpractices. a. Agreed b. Disagreed.

c. Neutral d. Strongly Agreed e. Strongly Disagreed 2. Lack of adequate school facilities encourage examination ethics in government day secondary school? a. Agreed b. Disagreed c. Neutral d. Strongly Agreed e. Strongly Disagreed 3. Most students are not serious with their academic pursuit and this can encourage them to cheat during examination. a. Agreed b. Disagreed c. Neutral d. Strongly Agreed e. Strongly Disagreed 4. There are lack of qualified , competent and skill teachers in government day secondary school; a. Agreed b. Disagreed c. Neutral d. Strongly Agreed e. Strongly Disagreed.

5. Communication gap between the students and the school authority, can this promote examination ethics towards students’ performance or quality in school? a. Agreed b. Disagreed c. Neutral d. Strongly Agreed e. Strongly Disagreed 3. 2 RESEARCH POPULATION Population in the context means group to which researchers plan to generate research work, the secondary school in Dekina Local Government Area with a case study of government day secondary school constituted the population of about two hundred and fifty (250) students and twenty (20) teachers. 3. 3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES.

Out of five (5) approved post school (list of the school appendix (refers) school were selected from the senior secondary three SS111) and their ages ranges between fifteen and twenty five years in the whole. Seventy-five (75) male students and seventy five female students participate in school. S/N Abbreviation of school Class Male female Age Range Total 1 G. D. S. S. D SS111 26 – 16-25 26 2 G. D. S. S. D SS111 26 – 16-25 26 3 G. D. S. S. D SS111 – 26 16-25 26 4 G. D. S. S. D SS111 20 6 16-25 26 5 G. D. S. S. D SS111 – 26 16-25 26 6 I. O. M. C. O SS111 6 20 16-25 26 th Thea above table represent and shows how students distrib.


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