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Prevention and control of infection Essay


Learning Outcome/Assessment criteria
explain employees’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection

As an employee it is our responsibility to adhere to company policies and procedures as well as those implemented by localized procedures. This means any communicable diseases which are notifiable must be brought to the attention of the appropriate authorities. If I have any concerns whatsoever regarding the management of infectious diseases in the workplace I should contact line/project manager who will then seek professional advice. All employees must also observe general precautions, other roles specific to a particular work activities also be observe red. Roles and responsibilities of personnel in relation to infection control.

1.1.1 explain employers’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection

It is the responsibility of the employer to provide employees with information on such policies as well as ensure all employees receive sufficient training where necessary. Also to provide PPE +personal protective equipment- to all members of staff.

1.1.2 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and the prevention and control of infection.

The Health and Social Care Act 2008; Code of Practice for health and adult social care on the prevention and control of infections and related guidance. To help providers of healthcare, adult social care, (and others) plan and implement how they prevent and control infections. It includes criteria for CQC to take into account when assessing compliance with the registration requirement on cleanliness and infection control. Legislation, regulations and guidance that govern infection prevention and control. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, Management of Health and Safety at Work Act (amended 1994), The Public Health (Control of Diseases) Act 1984,

Food Safety Act 1990,
COSHH 2002,
RIDDOR 1995,
The Public Health (Infectious Diseases) Regulation 1988,
The Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations (Department of Health 1995), The Environmental Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations 1991, Health Protection Agency Bill,
Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005,
NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) Guideline 2 June 2003

Describe local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection The following local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection are The Public Health (control of disease) Act 1984, Social Care Act, the NICE guidelines and also company policies and procedures that relate to infection prevention and control. For example with regards to own company, it states that “Any persons suffering from an infectious or contagious disease must either have clearance rom own doctor or seek guidance from your line manager.”

Describe procedures and systems relevant prevention and control of infection Procedures and systems relevant to the prevention of control infection are following companies policies and procedures which relate to correct hand washing procedure, wearing correct PPE for example gloves, aprons and protective clothing, the correct disposal of waste and using the correct cleaning equipment when cleaning spillages, surfaces, equipment etc.

Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation. ‘The outbreak of infection can be fatal if care is not taken; for instance an outbreak of MRSA that can be resistant to most antibiotics can be fatal. The outbreak of an infection has consequences for individuals, staff and the organisation. It can cause ill health to all concerned and it can also impact emotionally because people that acquire infection relate it to being dirty and some infections may require people to be isolated from others for a period of time. The organisation could lose money if most of the staff are off sick and as they will then need to employ more staff which they will be paying to cover in addition to staff that are off sick. The organisation could also be fined by not complying with the law and in turn this will damage their reputation.

Define ‘RISK’
Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss

Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace

In the workplace supporting individuals with personal care activities and sharing facilities with others involve coming into contact with bodily fluids which contain pathogens. Cleaning areas such as bathrooms that are dirty and where bodily fluids are present may be more likely to be contaminated with pathogens. Handling laundry that may be dirty or contaminated with bodily fluids can also contain pathogens. Handling of disposing of clinical waste, emptying waste containers and receptacles, that may also be contaminated with pathogens.

Providing personal care activities that require being close to an individual and dealing with bodily fluids increases the chance of infections spreading. Sometimes support workers may be exposed to high risk situations where the risk of infection spreading is higher such as in an individual’s home where the support worker is supporting with personal care but then also other activities such as handling food and disposing of waste.’

Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment
Risk assessment helps makes us aware of the risks involved in any activity and know how to reduce or remove the risk. It also helps to protect the organisation’s reputation because the risk assessment identifies the risks in the workplace and the measures put in place to control or eradicate such risks. In general, risk assessments are important as they reduce the risks of accidents and ill health to everyone. There are five main stages to carrying out a risk assessment: Identify the hazard – this means finding out what the hazards are and what might cause harm by observing but also by speaking with individuals, staff and visitors. Evaluate the risks – this stage involves deciding who might be harmed and how and involves considering everyone in the workplace such as individuals, staff and visitors.

Take precautions – this involves deciding on what precautions must be taken to remove, reduce or avoid the hazards for example wearing the appropriate PPE might be a precaution. Review the risks – the effectiveness of the precautions in place should be checked regularly to ensure that they are sufficient. Report and record outcome – the findings of the risk assessment must be recorded and all those involved and who need to know should be given explanations and information on how these risks can be prevented and/or controlled

Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment
The main aim is to make sure that no one gets hurt or becomes ill. Accidents and ill health can ruin lives, and can also affect business if output is lost, machinery is damaged, insurance costs increase, or if you have to go to court. Therefore, carrying out risk assessments, preparing and implementing a safety statement and keeping both up to date will not in themselves prevent accidents and ill health but they will play a crucial part in reducing their likelihood. Employers, managers and supervisors should all ensure that workplace practices reflect the risk assessments and safety statement. Behaviour, the way in which everyone works, must reflect the safe working practices laid down in these documents.

Supervisory checks and audits should be carried out to determine how well the aims set down are being achieved. Corrective action should be taken when required. Additionally, if a workplace is provided for use by others, the safety statement must also set out the safe work practices that are relevant to them. Hence, it is important to carry out a Risk Assessment and prepare a Safety Statement for: 1. Financial reasons:

2. Legal reasons:
3. Moral and ethical reasons:

Describe different types of PPE

Aprons and gloves are commonly used types of PPE. Disposable gloves have different type’s namely standard latex (i.e. white gloves used for personal care tasks), nitrile (i.e. used for cleaning tasks) and vinyl (i.e. blue gloves used when handling food). Disposable plastic aprons are placed over uniforms and prevent the uniform from becoming soiled when carrying out different activities (i.e. white apron for personal care and blue for handling food). Other PPE used in care settings can include uniforms (must not be worn outside of work and must be washed on a regular basis) and hats (worn when food is being prepared and served). PPE is used to reduce the risk of pathogens being transferred from the support worker to the individual, from one individual to another, from one staff member to another. PPE form physical barriers from infections and protect staff from infection carried by individuals and individuals from any pathogens staff may be carrying 5.5.2

Explain the reasons for use of PPE
* Gloves- protect hands.
* Gowns/aprons-protect skin and/or clothing.
* Masks and respirators.
* Respirators- protect respiratory tract from airborne infectious agents. * Goggles- protect eyes.
* Face shields- protect face, mouth, nose, and eyes.

State current relevant regulations and legislation relating to PPE

Employees are responsible to use PPE appropriate and as instructed by employer. An employee has to check PPE before and after use and have to report any damage. Ensuring employees who store and handle dangerous substances are properly trained. Using appropriate precautions when handling substances- for example, wearing protective clothing or ensuring adequate ventilation. Checking containers are properly labelled.

Describe employees’ responsibility regarding the removal of PPE

It is the responsibility of employees to ensure that they take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and that of their co-workers and other persons in or near the workplace. Report to management any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or risks that they identify in their work environment. Participate in training provided by the employer, regarding the appropriate use, care, and maintenance of PPE. Uses PPE in accordance with instruction provided and follow

Describe employers’ responsibility regarding the removal of PPE Employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE include providing the correct PPE in relation to the specific tasks that are carried out and for staff members (i.e. the correct fitting PPE); this must be provided free of charge. Employers need to have arrangements in place to make sure PPE is stored correctly and is available when needed. It is the duty of the employer to assess the need of PPE in the work environment. The employer must also train staff and provide them with information and guidance on how to use PPE

Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE

‘Before putting on an apron you must first wash and dry your hands and then the neck strap must be placed over the head and the waist ties fastened behind the back. To remove the apron it is important to limit the areas your hand will touch in order to reduce the possibility of cross infection. You should pull at the neck strap and the waist strap making sure that it does not fall to the floor, then scrunch it up into a ball in your gloved hand and then dispose of it in the yellow bin bag. When removing PPE avoid touching any surface, remove the item before moving to the next patient, place the item in the correct bin and wash and dry your hands afterwards in case of cross contamination. Clinical waste like gloves and aprons are regarded as high risk and must be disposed of properly to reduce the risk of cross infection. Infectious, hazardous materials should be placed in yellow bags for incineration; black bags are for food waste and other waste.

Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE
Put on medical gloves and place your PPE in a plastic garbage bag. Tightly tie and secure the garbage bag to prevent dripping. If dripping occurs and garbage touches your skin or clothes, wash them thoroughly. Put PPE in your workplace’s receptacles. It may be labelled for bio hazardous waste. Clean waste containers regularly. Your workplace may require you to clean receptacles daily depending on their policies; and wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water after handling.

Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene

Some of the principles of good personal hygiene include washing hands before and after tasks and bathing regularly to prevent the spread of infection and body odour, keeping hair clean and tied back, wearing clean clothing and ensuring uniforms worn are washed regularly and only worn in the workplace to avoid the spread of infection, keeping nails trimmed and clean, not wearing jewellery at work as this can be a way of transporting pathogens.

Describe the correct sequence for hand washing

The stages for hand washing are as follows:
Make sure that you remove any jewellery,
Turn the water tap on and make sure that you can place both hands under the water comfortably and that it is at the right temperature so that you can wash your hands, Wet both hands,
Apply soap and lather both hands palm to palm,
Rub each hand over the back of the other,
Interlock fingers and rub fingers,
Rub thumbs,
Rub palms together,
Rinse to remove the soap residue,
Dry your hands with either a paper towel or an air drier.

Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out
Hand washing should be carried out regularly to help prevent and control the spread of infection and should be washed before starting work and putting on a clean uniform, before and after using PPE, before and after specific tasks such as after using the toilet, before and after handling and serving food, after handling waste, before and after carrying out activities with individuals.

Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing There are different types of products that should be used for hand washing and these include soap, antiseptic gels and alcohol-based hand rubs. Liquid soap from a dispenser should be used for hand washing in communal areas as these will have less pathogens then if bars of soap are shared between different people. Antiseptic gels contain chemicals that destroy pathogens and these are used where there is a higher risk of infection. Alcohol-based hand rubs should be used in addition to and not instead of hand washing with soaps and antiseptic gels and add an additional protective barrier against pathogens.


Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare.
Hand washing should be carried out regularly to help prevent and control the spread of infection and should be washed before starting work and putting on a clean uniform, before and after using PPE, before and after specific tasks such as after using the toilet, before and after handling and serving food, after handling waste, before and after carrying out activities with individuals. It is important to take care of our skin as it protects from pathogens; if the skin is not looked after it could become dry and develop cracks which in turn could become the route of pathogens. It is therefore important that hand cream is applied to help keep skin moisturised so that it does not become dry.

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