Social institutions are networks of relationships that carry out the essential social functions. Social institutions develop around these needs. Kinship & family, religion, workplace, market place, mutual li i k l k t l t l assistance and government, etc. are organizational forms. They are formalized forms way of providing resources for helping to meet human needs.
Social welfare characteristics: Residual approach
Help provided only when needs are unmet by other institutions- family, religious institution, market, etc. Viewed as a safety net Temporary and viewed as negative Stigma attached. It is curative g Sees poor as incompetent, second-class p citizens & provides second class services
Social welfare:institutional/ developmental approach
SW is considered as a first line defense of modern industrialized society. Seen as normal and accepted way of fulfilling l d d f f lfilli social needs. No stigma attached It is preventative. attached. preventative Recognizes the need for variety of social services to maintain good standard of living. g g Social problems are rooted in social structure and hence planned social change.
Social welfare characteristics
Right versus charity Minimal versus optimal Identify examples Discuss Di
Selective services Residual/minimalist
Means tested Eligibility & benefit levels are determined on a case basis Financial assistance not a right Benefits paid from general revenue State control is important
Changing concepts of social welfare
From residual to institutional From charity to citizen right From special services to universal services From minimum resources to optimal social environments i t From individual to social reform From voluntary to p blic and private ol ntar public pri ate From welfare of the poor to Welfare State From social welfare to Social Development
From individual to social reform
A move from psychological and moral defects/deficiencies to structural and social factors. Is poverty due to individual deficiencies or due to structural and social factors?
From welfare of the poor to a welfare society
From the relief of immediate needs to a long term p g planning that will p g prevent future needs
From social welfare to social development
Social welfare Social development: Planned institutional change including social, economic and political change for the welfare of the nation as a whole.
Studies of the process of welfare policy: Focuses on the dynamics of policy formulation with regard to socio-political and technical-methodological variables. Deals ith th D l with the societal context in which i t l t t i hi h policy decisions are made, the behaviors, motivations and goals of various actors who participate in the process and stages of the process of policy development
As moral concept reflecting value p preferences. As social policy As programs and services As income transfer As study of functions outside market forces to meet human need.
Methods of policy practice
Social Work Journal article by FigueiraMcDonough g Legislative advocacy Reform through litigation Social action