The early years of children are important because of their unique developmental needs (physical, cognitive, social and emotional). These needs can only be identified and addressed by professionally trained and competent preschool or early childhood teachers. However, attracting and hiring these teachers are serious challenges for school administrators.
To look more closely into the problem and help craft a solution, this paper examined the current standards, policies, and practices in hiring preschool teachers in public and private schools in Pasig City based on the recommended hiring standards, policies, and practices in the literature, DepEd, and experts. The study suggests appropriate standards, policies, and practices in hiring teachers that will ensure that children’s unique developmental needs are met and that they shall have gained readiness to proceed to the next educational level.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Background of the Study Children who undergo preschool education perform better in primary grades (grade 1-3) than those who do not (Branscombe, Castle, Dorsey, Surbeck, and Taylor 2000; Jalongo, Fennimore, Pattnaik, Laverick, Brewster, and Mutuku 2004; Laosa 2005; Soliven, Guerrero, Barsaga, Palma, Canlas, and Garon 1997). & Mutuku. By the time they enter elementary school, they can say the alphabet, write their names, and count numbers one to ten.
They adjust better, follow instructions, and interact with their teachers and classmates. Because of thparents realize the benefits in the early schooling of children, preschool student enrollment has been growing in number, which encouraginges a number of investors to set up preschools. Preschool education is mostly managed by private individuals, organizations, and institutions because of insufficient government funding for the enhancement of preschool education (Neri 2001; Soliven et al. 1997).
According to the Department of Education (DepEd), tis, there has been an unprecedented growth in the number of preschools both in rural and urban areas in the private sector. The latest directory of private preschools in Metro Manila from the Department of Education (DepEd) shows that there are 1,477 preschools all over the National Capital Region during the school year 2005-2006, and 872 preschools during the school year 2000-2001; thus, there was an increase of 575 preschools. (see table 1).
(See Table 1)(See Table 1) he number latest of private schools in Metro Manila grew from 4,788 in school year 2003-2004 to 6664 in the school year 2007-2008, a 72% showing increase. from school year 2000-2001 to school year 2005-2006 (see table 1). Preschool enrollment in private schools rose from 349,574 in school year 2003-2004 to 410,778 in school year 2007-2008, an 85% increase. Many see preschool education as a profitable business, but one that entails high costs if one is to meet certain standards, such as hiring qualified and licensed teachers and paying higher salaries.
Quality education also means better teacher-to-student ratio (the ideal is 1:10 or 1:15), a developmentally appropriate curriculum, and quality teaching materials—all of which translate to higher costs. Ms. Vanessa Morales, owner and administrator of Kid’s First Discovery Space preschool in BF Homes, Paranaque, wanted her preschool to be different from preschools run by business people. Her priority is providing quality education on a not-for-profit basis.
At Kid’s First, she has knowledgeable and experienced teachers: all her head teachers have master’s degrees in Education or Psychology, major in child development (Manuzon 2006). Due to the growing number of private preschools in Metro Manila, there will be a great demand for preschool teachers who are professionally trained to manage the learning needs of young children. To ensure that For this purposeteachers hired are qualified and competent, , DepEd issued DECS Order No. 107 (1989) outlining the standards in the organization and
operation of preschools (see appendix A), which include guidelines on staff requirements. The qualifications of teachers prescribed by DepEd for private schools are: Bachelor of Science degree specializing in Family Life and Child Development or Early Childhood Education or Kindergarten; Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education with 18 units in Preschool Education and 54 hours of practicum in preschool classes; Bachelor of Arts/Science degree in a discipline allied to education, arts, nursing, anthropology, with 18 units of preschool education.
Upon appointment, the teacher should have at least 6 units of preschool education, and the requirement of 18 units may be gradually implemented as follows: At the end of Year 1 – 9 units; Year 2 – 12 units; Year 3 – 15 units; Year 4 – 18 units.
In addition, the sprouting of private preschools are also due to the following: 1) most private schools do not accept grade one pupils if they have not been through kinder and nursery or preschools; b) they are financially viable and a lucrative business; 2c) public schools cannot accommodate all preschool-age children and so parents put them in private preschools; 3e) there is a growing number of preschool student enrollment; 4f) because of the child sduring their early years, 5the Department of Education (DepEd) is not as strict with preschools as with regular grade and high schools; or, 6g) parents are both working and the mother is too busy to give her children their first lessons. 7have become a (Newman 2002). The Due to the mushrooming of preschools grew asthat have been set up forcommercial, business reasons, especially in urban centers, and the government’s insufficient funding towards the enhancement of preschool education, the desired goal of standard quality education for young children may not be achieved. This vast, mushrooming, unregulated and still unsurveyed sector maybe violating the right of young children to quality education. Due to the absence of control or regulation, these schools would have unqualified teachers, large classes, and less infrastructure facilities (Newman 2002). Ms.
Irene Bernardo, whosingle and now retiredSomeone who prefers to be anony from preschool teaching setismous and who’s up a preschool in her own home after retiring from teaching, stated that some preschool teachers are business or psychology graduates, business or psychology graduates, not education graduates, but business or psychology graduates.. In her case, she has a Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education, magna cum laude, from the Philippine Normal College, ManilaUP, Diliman. For her, it is important for preschool teachers to have a background in education, especially in early childhood development education, which involves a substantial study of the- the psychomotor, affective, psychosocial and cognitive foundations of the childI. Bernardo, m), which will have bearing on the development of the child. which will determine how and what he will be when he grows up.
The preschool teacher should also acquire skills and training in educating young children, them. From agesold . (. http://www. sunstar. com. ph/static/ceb/2002/06/13/life/the. mushrooming. of. preschools. html) | | DepEd also issued DECS Form GPR 3-A (revised 2005) to serve as a processing sheet for proposals for opening of new school (see appendix B). It limits the teaching staff requirements for preschool teachers to a Bachelor in Early Childhood Education (BECED); or Bachelor in Elementary Education (BEEd) with 18 units of Early Childhood Education. In public schools, student enrollment grows by 300,000 yearly, and some 10,000 teachers are needed to be hired every year to address the lack of manpower.
Out of the 10,000 teachers recommended for hiring annually, 2,500 are intended for government preschools. The hiring of more teachers is needed because President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo has issued an order requiring preschool education nationwide by 2010. (News Balita, January 13, 2006). In preparation for the launching of preschool education in public schools, DepEd business peoplebut . Theireesbetter teacherstudent, she not onlyes but also s: a. Furthermore,havesan degree P. Last August 24, 2007, DepEd issued Order No. 57 on August 24, 2007, laying down or the “Guidelines on Hiring and Deployment of Preschool Teachers” was issued as additional guidelines forin the selection and deployment of public preschool teachers (see appendix CB).
Based on the guidelines, a preschool teacher applicant must must pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) to be eligibleconsidered for teaching. Preschool teachers in order to teach should take the LET for elementary teachers. There is no LET yet yet in specific to preschool teachers; prospective preschool teachers take the LET for elementary teachers. , while there is LET specific to secondary or high school teachers. According to Dr. Rogelio Baybayon, Assistant Superintendent of the Pasig Division office of DepEd, the requirements of the LET and the 21 early childhood education (ECE) units (instead of 18 ECE units) d et al.
When I telephoned the Pasig DDivision of public schools to inquire on their policies regarding preschool education, and was able to talk to Dr.Rogelio Baybayuin, the officer-in-charge of preschool education,he said that they do not have preschool programseducation like nursery and prep, and what they have is onlythey only have kindergarten level which is being offered by very few public schools. They do not accept 4 year olds, only 5 year olds for kindergarten, and the 6 year olds are automatically Grade 1 even without going through the kindergarten level or preschool education. Since preschool educations is not yet part of the public school educational ladder.
The , unlike the elementary and secondary education, it is mostly in the hands of private individual, organizations and institutions, which are operating without proper government regulations see guidelinescoveringsguidelinesthe renewal of toany administrators when they have been found to v some rules Neri (2001) disclosed a. s Based on the DECS Order No. 107, s.1989 or the Standards for the Organization and Operation of Preschools (Kindergarten Level), the required qualifications for preschool teachers are the following: (1)
Bachelor of Science Degree with specialization in family life and child development of early childhood education or kindergarten; (2) BS Degree in Elementary education with 18 units in preschools education and 54 hours of practicum in preschool classes; and (3) Bachelor of Arts or BS degree in a discipline allied to education, arts, nursing, anthropology with 18 units of preschool education (Industry Briefs, October 2001).
The job requirements based on the DepEd qualificationss for for preschool teachers are also now being enforced for private schoolsteachers.to be able to teach in preschools. s do not include the licensing or certification, of preschool teachers. However, DepEd sare encouraged requires all public school teachers to undergo the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). .He revealed that there are some private schools which cannot follow these requirements and DepEd is forced to withhold their permit to operate. In any case, even if He also said that the LET for elementary teachers is for general education, and preschool teachers may take it. tTo qualify to teach For the 21 ECE units requirement, Philippine Normal University (PNU) is their reference. ,(pers. com. Dr. R. Baybayon, February 28, 2008).
In the recent LET given by the Board of Professional Teachers on September 28, 2008 and conducted in 19 testing centers all over the Philippines, only 17,816 out of 58,471 elementary teacher examineesthere were who passed itThere were o,3who the examination (The Professional Regulation Commission, March 10, 2009). This meansmMan estimated that only 302933% of the examinees are qualified to teach, and are difficulty in the hiring of qualified preschool teachers, mo913,45,56eligible for hiringto hire. Table 2. National Percentage of Passing in the LET | |Teacher-Elementary |Teacher-Secondary | |Year |No. of Examinees |No. of Successful |Percentage of |No. of Examinees |No. of Successful |Percentage of | | | |Examinees |Passing | |Examinees |Passing | |2002 |76,626 |27,060 |35. 32% |65,106 |23,772 |36. 52% | |2003 |75,348 |19,765 |26. 25% |68,992 |18,115 |26. 25% | |2004 |60,614 |16,297 |26. 89% |58,507 |15,860 |27.
11% | |2005 |67,333 |18,517 |27. 50% |61,576 |15,945 |25. 90% | |2006 |59,457 | 17,377 | 29. 23% |53,303 | 17,290 |32. 44% | Former senatorSource: Professional Regulation Commission Licensing of teachers in the private preschools are also being encouraged by the DepEd, an example is the Pasig Catholic College, where their preschool teachers are graduates of early childhood education and are LET passers. The prospect of hiring teachers without credentials may be rampant because of the recent result of the LET. There were few teachers who passed the LET given by the Board of Professional Teachers on August 27, 2006 in 18 testing centers all over the Philippines.
It showed that there were only 17,277 elementary public school teachers out of the 59,457 examinees who successfully passed. (Manila Standard Today, October 10, 2006). This is an estimated 33% who are qualified to teach in the public elementary schools and these may not be enough considering the growing number of student enrollment in public elementary schools which accounts to 12,089,365 based on Basic Education Statistics (BES) SY2004-2005. In view of the above, howHow can both private and public schools get teachers who can meet the minimum requirements for teaching in preschools and how can the DepEd ensure that only well-qualified, licensed preschool teachers educators are being hired and will be available in every preschool classroom.?
How does the private and public schools cope with the supply and demand of qualified preschool teachers? Student enrollment is increasing and there are not enough qualified teachers to teacher these students. What other options can the government doy take in addressing hiring teachers without credentials? How can the preschoolsy tap sources of potential preschool teachers? has the government . annually . whomis afigure Trequiring nationwide. The combined public and private preschool enrollment increased from 2003 to 2007, from 778, 550831,730 (18. 36%) in school year 2003-2004 to 999,59652,109 (20. 53%) in school year 20076-20087; or 221120,046379 school children were added to the system.
More than half of these children (588,81857, 220) were with DepEd’s preschool program in school year 2007-2008 (DepEd Updates, March 22, 20097). Mrs. Mariquita de Guzman, Assistant Principal of San Miguel Elementary School, said that their school has four preschool teachers for their 132 kindergarten students with a teacher to student ratio of 1:48. Miss Letty Flores, preschool teacher of Maybunga Elementary School, said that their school has two preschool teachers for the 90 kindergarten students with a teacher to student ratio of 1:45. All of their preschool teachers were volunteers from the elementary level who have a degree in elementary education (pers. com. Mrs. M. de Guzman and Ms. L. Flores, April 15, 2009).
In some private preschools, principals wait until the enrollment has begun before they decide to hire teachers. As a result, teachers hired are not qualified. only a few qualified teachers are available and teacher to student ratio becomes to 1:50 (pers. com. Mrs. Susan Garcia, April 16, 2009). ). To address the teacher shortage in the public schools (including preschools), Education Secretary Jesli Lapus announced that 16,390 new teachers would be hired for the year 2007. (The Manila Times, June 4, 2007). lat thsover This e concern for the hiring of preschool teachers will create more pressuresnot likely abate in the near future because the pressures on that strain the local supply and ddemand for and supply ofof qualified teachers.
With the increase in becausewill increase more and more private individuals and institutions will are venturinging into the preschool business education, and the institutionalization of preschool education by 2010, that will require more qualified preschool teachers will be requiredto support DepEd’s effort in institutionalizing preschool education.. . Human capital is the most important resource of any service organization, and the teacher is the most important capital in the educational setting. There are many nonhuman resources that are needed in the schools such as classrooms, computers, and textbooks, but these resources are dependent on competent teachers who will put them into good use.
The preschool is a labor-intensive operation where the teacher’s knowledge, skills, abilities, stamina, values, and passion must be carefully managed to achieve its learning objectives (Hearron and Hildebrand 2003). However, in order to achieve its learning objectives, they should hire teachers who possess proper qualifications who can provide learning opportunities that will bring out the best in their students. epartment of ducation, ulture and ports (DECS)A major task of the artment of ucation (DepEd)school administrator is faculty hiring and selecting qualified and committed teachers is a more critical task considering the scarcity of qualified applicants.
Teacher qualifications remains to be an issue and with the recent results of the Licensure Examination for Teachers given by the Board of Professional Teachers on August 27, 2006 in 18 testing centers all over the Philippines, there were only 17,277 elementary public school teachers out of 59,457 examinees who successfully passed. (Manila Standard Today, October 10, 2006). This is an estimated 33% who are qualified to teach in the public elementary schools and there may not be enough considering there the growing growing student enrollment in public elementary schools which accounts to 12,089,365 based on Basic Education Statistics (BES) SY2004-2005.
However, in the private preschools but they should meet the minimum required in order to the desired qualifications which is:,need to prepare job descriptions that state the criteria like the applicant “(1) Bachelor of Science Degree with specialization in family life and child development of early childhood education or kindergarten; (2) BS Degree in Elementary education with 18 units in preschools education and 54 hours of practicum in preschool classes; (3) Bachelor of Arts or BS degree in discipline allied to education, arts, nursing, anthropology with 18 units of preschool education” (Industry Briefs, October 2001). Hiring the right faculty is building the future. It is essential that utmost care and attention be given to hiring standards and policies and that execution be done with creativity and patience, since the hiring process is tedious and time-consuming, thus there should be no shortcuts.
As the philosopher Spinoza observed at the end of his great work, The Ethics, “…all things worthwhile are difficult as they are rare” (A Re-Examination of Faculty Hiring Processes and Procedures, Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, Adopted Fall 2000). The term “faculty” is defined as a branch of teaching or learning in an educational institution; something in which one is trained or qualified; the members of a profession; or the teaching and administrative staff and those members of the administration having the academic rank in an education institution (Merriam Webster 1991). The faculty is composed of all persons appointed for the instruction of students.
In a preschool, the faculty or teachers are persons directly involved in handling children. They play a major role in the education of the children since they help in the formation and development of the students especially in their early years. They are responsible for providing environment conducive to learning conditions where children are given opportunities to interact. Thus, the faculty or preschool teachers significantly contribute to humanity and to the nation towards prosperity by providing learning opportunities that will bring out the best in their students. Hiring is engaging the services or labor in exchange for payment (Lexicon Webster 1978. ).
Hiring involves the following steps: advertising, recruiting; screening; interviewing; teaching demo, selecting and final interview. Recruitment is defined as establishing a pool of potentially acceptable applicants (Lipham and Heoh, 1974 p. 236). The first step is usually to post (advertise) the job position usually in bulletin boards of universities, professional organizations, advertise in local newspapers and teacher based magazines. Once the school recruitment officer has received the letters of applications, the rest of the hiring process is accomplished. Faculty hiring is the recruitment and selection of teachers for teaching positions. It involves the following steps: advertising, recruiting; screening; interviewing; teaching demo; selecting and final interview.
Faculty hiring is a major task of the administrative or leadership group of the school and selecting the right teacher is a more critical task considering the very few qualified applicants to choose from. Administrators need to prepare job descriptions that state the minimum as well as desired qualifications of a preschool teacher, these are: (1) Bachelor of Science Degree with specialization in family life and child development of early childhood education or kindergarten; (2) BS Degree in Elementary education with 18 units in preschools education and 54 hours of practicum in preschool classes; (3) Bachelor of Arts or BS degree in discipline allied to education, arts, nursing, anthropology with 18 units of preschool education.
” (Neri October 2001) “The teachers we need are immersed in discipline, informed professional inquiry and action that results in raising the bar and closing the gap by engaging all students in learning” (Fullan 2003). The preschool administrator or principal is usually the one in charge of recruiting the right teachers to fill in teaching positions clearly defined and understood by the selectors, i. e. there is a good and clear job description. The competencies to perform the job successfully are explicit, i. e. the job criteria or person specification have been prepared and are known by the selectors. There is a planned provision for the assessment of all the required competencies, i. e.the technical assessment stages have been clearly conceived and scheduled.
There is a clear policy on how the final decisions are to be arrived at and the final stage procedure ensures that all of the evidence of earlier stages is accumulated and considered before making a judgment” (Kydd 1997). Although it can be time-consuming, principals must actively recruit good teachers to their schools. They usually do this by: (1) visiting teacher education classes to find promising new teachers; (2) providing practicum to student teachers and later hire the good ones; (3) talking to teachers and other principals to find quality experienced teachers who might be looking for new positions.
Hiring policies and practices should be carefully crafted so fairness and equity are reflected to avoid legal complaints in the future. Applicants should be notified whether they were accepted or denied and the reasons why they were not accepted. “Hiring the right faculty is building the future because teachers play a major role in the education of children; they help in the formation and development of children, some of whom will become future leaders of tomorrow. But the right faculty may not mean hiring having a certification or licensure, but one who has a strong commitment to the care and education of young children. There is no wiser or more enduring investment than in the care and education of young children. worthwhile The Research Problem.
DDue to the number mushrooming being put up and the government’s move to institutionalizeeize preschool education by year 2010, in Metro Manila and in the provinces without control or regulation, hiring would is in all probabilitymay be increasingly be intenserampant. DepEd’s hiring guidelines for preschool teachers prescribe only the minimum qualifications;;, but there are no clear-cut guidelines on the screening and hiring process for preschool teachers. these schools tend to hire preschool teachers who are not qualified. There is a need to carefully managed preschools to ensure that the intellectual development and values formation of childrenThus, there is a need forere should be specific and customized procedures for screening applicants and hiring areistowardforqualified preschool teachers who are trained to address the unique learning and developmental needs of preschoolers.
(Berk 2005; Branscombe et al. 2000; Brewer 2004; Essa 2003; Estes 2004; Machado and Meyer-Botnarescue 2001). However, Taguiwalo (2005) reported that recruitment is the number one weakness of the Philippine basic education. and eEvery year for the past five years, public schools recruited around 10,000 to 15,000 teachers from a pool of 100,000 new graduates. ,Yet the schools do not always get the best qualified teachers, as evidenced by the poor student achievement test results. they Results of the National Elementary Achievement Test (NEAT) in SY 2005-2006 reflected that only 29 percent or 38 of 131 competencies/skills were demonstrated by children.
The problem of poor quality of education has been traced to a number of factors which include lack of teacher competencies and poor manpower planning (UNESCO and National Statistical Coordination Board 2009). How can DepEd ensure that only qualified and competent preschool teachers will handle every preschool class? HHoH will be assured hiring of professionally well prepared preschool teachers who are committed to caring and educating young children.. Preschool teacher hiring will not be easy considering the scarcity of qualified teachers. ow then can then school administrators ensure that they that they hire qualified and competent preschool teachers who can How can they tap available sources of prospective preschool teachers present?
To seek answerss to the research problem, se questions, “The government, through the Department of Education (DepED), should come up with clear-cut policies on the operation of these schools offering pre-school education to children aged three to six years old,” Chipeco added. (http://www. congress. gov. ph/press/details. php? pressid=931) DepEd should also develop measures seeking not only to regulate and oversee the pre-schools, but also to develop preschool teachers hiring guidelines. DepEd should conduct investigation and close down preschools that do not use the guidelines. thus early childhood education is regarded as their top priority.
“Childhood should be carefully defined in all nations as a highly distinct period of human growth and development that deserves careful educational, social, and political attention and intervention. ” (Jalongo, et al 2004) However, Nolido (2006) said . While the government is not yet capable of putting preschool education in the educational ladder, we would like to expand it to reach more five year-old kids particularly in the depressed areas of the country. .. Jalongo, et al 2004et al, page 23number Educational prog for the world’s youngest citizen teachers who are ,m ? Will there be enough preschool teachers who will teach this growing number of student enrollment??issues in the Philippine basic and (LET) (NAT) private preschools hire applicantsare not education graduates or licensed? private .
To seek answers to these questions, I will e researcheris Another issue which is very timely is the campaign of the Department of Education to institutionalize preschool education in public schools. Nolido said preschool education is not yet part of the educational ladder. Institutionalizing it requires a huge budget to the basic education system. “While the government is not yet capable of putting preschool education in the educational ladder, we would like to expand its coverage to reach more five year-old kids particularly in the depressed areas of the country,” Nolido said.
and also the current issues in the Philippine educational systemthe Thus the objective of thisresearch willof the study revieweds and compareds the currentGrowing demand for preschool teacher applicants can be attested to the increasing number of student enrollments and the mushrooming of preschools in the metropolis. Drive along any neighborhood and you will likely pass by one, whether it is a small home-based play school or a more structured organization in a bigger edifice. The latest directory of private preschools in Metro Manila from the Department of Education shows that there are (872) preschools all over the capital region alone. Of this total, (217) are exclusively preschools only, defined here as catering to either the one-year-old to 6-year-old age bracket or the kindergarten level which may also include levels preparatory to kindergarten (e. g. nursery, etc.
The remaining (55) schools offer elementary education up to 6th grade, in addition to the preschool curriculum. Quezon City has the most number of preschools with 275, followed by Manila with 112. Proximity to residence is criterion parents often consider when choosing schools for their children, however there are many other factors to bear in mind in deciding which school is best” (Neri 2001). Public and private preschools resort to hiring teachers to fill in the demand for teaching positions. The Department of Education has recommended guidelines for hiring preschool teachers, which the public preschools should implement while the private preschools are encouraged to use.
Thus, the main research problem of this study is to compare standards, policies, and practices (SPPs) in hiring preschool teachers in preschool andpublic schools with those of privateprivate schools in Pasig City ,and , then compareds each group’s SPPs with offering preschool education with the standards, policies and practices in hiring teachers in private preschools in Pasig City the recommended SPPs in hiring preschool teachers based on related literature, DepEd requirements, and the views of experts on preschools. point out the gaps or discrepancies between the mandated and actual faculty hiring standards, policies and practices of public and private preschools in Pasig City.
Secondly, I would like to understand the nature and causes of the gaps, and thirdly, I would like to understand why such gaps have been permitted to exist until the present. Purposess of the Study create awareness among the policymakers, DepEd officials, private preschool owners, and preschool principals The purpose of the study soughtoughtis to (1) investigate the SPPstandards in for hiring preschool teachers in selected public and private schools in Pasig City; (2)and pinpoint commonalities and differences in their current hiring SPPs; and, (3) find out how they measure up to what is recommended in the scientific literature, at DepEd, and by experts.
Thus, this study has drawn upwilldetermine whether standards are in line with preschool learning capabilities and requirement for primary grades. s appropriate hiring SPPs for both public and private preschools that can serve ases benchmarks for hiring preschool teachers to ensure that the goal of getting the best qualified preschool teachers is met. Theensure that both public and private schools offering preschool education in Pasig City are able to hire the most qualified and competent preschool teachers and that ensure that there are standards, policies and practices in hiring preschool teachers in public and private schools in Pasig City. is that they together withmajority if not alleto review and reexamine their preschool teaching hiring standards, policies and practices.
This assist in the hiring of preschool teacherswill enfrom a wider market and whose qualifications meet the preschool learning competencies. Research Questions In order to answer the research problem, the following research questions were looked intoarewere: • What are the recommended faculty hiring SPPsstandards, policies, and practices for preschool teachers based on related literature, DepEd guidelines, and the views of experts and administrators? • What are the reported and/or actual hiring SPPsfaculty hiring standards, policies, and practices for preschool teachers in both of public and private schools in Pasig City offering ECE? • How do the reported and/or actual faculty hiring SPPstandards, policies.
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