Communication is the basic human need to share meanings and express ideas and thoughts and that can be achieved by the exchange of information between the society members. The process of communication is defined by the technology available, culture and protocols of communication. Political scientists are interested in political communication through studying the interaction communication between the political system and the political process generally and they confirmed the importance of the fundamental relationship between them, they called for re-examination and analysis of political science based on communication theories.
Politics is difficult to be found without communication because there must be a link between the public and the ruling elite (decision makers), and this applies to the political system too. Citizens must be able to communicate their wishes and demands to the government, and the government should be able to communicate its decisions to citizens and justify them to win their satisfaction.
Political parties and politicians needs huge public support, Where it can be said that political communication is the most important means of communication that must be followed by a party in order to gain such support. It is well known that the objective of any party is to access power or participate in it and this cannot be reached without large public support. This political communication can take various forms depends on the technology available such as press, radio, television and digital networked media.
The political communication is the proper way of any party members to open dialogue with the masses of the people for establish the doctrine of their party to them, and gain popular support for the policy and programs of the party, where they listen to note of the public towards some situations and impressions towards it, and the members of the party again, during their partisan meetings to discuss the various social and economic problems in the community, and that need solutions, ranging proposals of different party members to fixing these problems through the hierarchical organization of the party until it reaches the level of leadership and integrate in the various party programs. thereby ensuring this party kind of interaction with he public surrounding it, so that lead the response to the wishes and requirements of the public in the general policy of the party, to achieve a great deal of compatibility between the party and street folk, and this goes back to the party with a great benefit in elections times, When the public find the investigator to them ambitions and expectations, and This causes at normal conditions for arrival (the party with compatibility larger with the popular will) to rule the country.
Communication was and will continue to be the most important activity in human life through interacts with others to express ideas, needs and feelings and dreams, and has expressed their personality, culture and freedom and the idea of an activity that can be embodied the meaning of human dignity and values. So this make this activity one of the most activities accountable of various standards, pressures and the laws that are on the whole a fundamental question about the nature of the relationship between the media and the ethics and other aspects of human life.
Communication science benefited and interact with all the of Sciences and knowledge, humanitarian, technical data and the science explain to us at this time to what affect the means of mass communication in the minds of the people and what is the size of this effect and how it is affecting. No one can deny the importance of these theories of communication that formed the communication science which had experimented in communities that adopted and tried to apply. The communication tools play an important role in political life, whether internal or the outside, not only political professionals are attach importance to their communication strategy, but governed also gaining most of their information through the communication tools.
The means of mass communication possesses the characteristics and capabilities of multiple distinct from those when its counterparts from groups or opinion leaders, are in any case means mass communication addresses the daily huge cross sections of the population with one voice. The means of communication and media are necessary and important to make effectively communication links and interactions are always open between the ruler and the governed.
Definitely, mass communication has evolved technically accompanied by the technological development happened to human societies in all fields, in ancient societies (Greek and Roman society), political community was limited and number of citizens who can be covered by ruling messages was known, so it was direct speeches and forums in public places established in open air r in the theaters of the city that was one of the most forms of political communication, so it was politicians highly dependent on rhetoric and the ability to inference to convince they governed, This free space for debate and political communication that helped to create direct democracy known as the Athenian democracy, But with the development of human societies and the expansion of political activity field appearance regimes of modern political became not possible to rely solely on speeches and seminars, which includes a limited number of citizens, but became necessary to find a communication to spread and includes a wide segment of the public. (Karl W. Deutsch, 2006) Literature Review:
Denis McQuail, 2010 “Seen these arguments written, visual and audio as a tool of direct democracy, and as a court of public opinion open day and night put the law for everything all the time, not a substitute for institutions, but such ray of light detector that keeps moving here and there, revealing always talking about the depths of darkness” Jacques Gerstle, 2004 “One of the basic properties of the twentieth century is the communication tools revolution, and the appearance the community of communication.
We saw the appearance of new techniques for political communication, these techniques that contributed in dissemination and sharing the information, ideas and communities in conditions limited time and across a wide geographical. ” Since the advent of printing, which contributed historically in the advancement of the theory and practice of democracy through journalism written is the court of public opinion, as well as with the emergence of radio, which was the most important means of communication used in the second world war propaganda by politicians, through well television, which affects more than other means of mass communication.
Various categories divergent public and geographically, does not follow some of the obstacles faced by other means such as the written press such as distribution problems and an individual’s ability to read all the way to satellites to broadcast dimensional networks of electronic communication global movement of information and ideas and comply with the limits of regional and geographical, with the development of all these means and which was called some people name new technologies for information and communication find that the process of political communication has evolved is also no longer this process takes place using the means of communication like a traditional speech, for example. Gabriel A. Almond, 2004 “That everything in politics is communication, system of communication is one of the main channels for the flow of information from the elite to the masses and also to transfer the problems of the masses and their aspirations and their perceptions to the elite. ”
Robert Wiener, David Jerison, I. Isadore Manuel Singer, Daniel W. Strook, 1997 “If we realized politics is system so communication system is the nerve that controls the system, and the system’s ability to exercise command and control linked to its ability to deal with the information, so that communication and control are two synonymous of same meaning, every time we call we also control. ” Karl W. Deutsch, William J. Foltz, 2010 “The nerves of government political Communication and Control” “is proposed similar political regime system Cyber ?? zonular, describes the relationship between the political system and its surroundings under shape or environment Cyber zonular, which imagined that communication as a system of decisions based on the flood of diverse information, and is communication and media the most important issues in political science, and confirms it is wrong to neglecting or underestimation the role of other changes. ”
Dr. Schwatzenberg, 1990 “Political communication is the path that moves the political information one part to another parts of the political regime and between this system and the social system, it is path continuously to exchange of information between individuals and groups at all levels, It is especially the exchange of information between rulers and ruled that will ensure the agreement between them, each governor seeks to accepting his decisions, and all governed trying to structured and their needs are taken in the consideration, and compatibility and harmonization be realized only through the communication and through exchange. ”
Harold Dwight Lasswell, Peter de Leon, 2009 “Political community like the pyramid, where rulers are elite at the top of the pyramid and the masses of people at the base, and between them there experts and specialists in the middle between the top and the base, and being communication processes on the basis that each nation have political ystem specific consists of elite, They are responsible for the decision and supervision on the state’s economic resources and human resources, to achieve the goals and programs of the State, the ruling elite and using tools of communication specialized experts believing they are the ones those can be in the process of communication between the elite and controlled groups, and staff working in this area have their role in attracting public attention to social issues. ”
Alvin Toffler, 1984 “That there is a relationship substantially between communication process and the political process, if the world of politics is based on power, the desires of those who have power must be transmitted to the expect they will respond to it, and if the world of politics is based on the legitimacy of the highest authority, the matter requires a means by which based the symbolic expression of values ?? and procedural standards for such systems, and if the world of politics based on participation, this means finding channels transporting the interests and demands of the citizens to decision makers. ”
Kenneth E. Boulding. 989 “The political process, such as the decision-making process, it is also a test of the roles of power in society, and in response to the images Stereotypes formed by political means of communication in society, The means of communication change of images Stereotypes of individuals, and political behavior based on images Stereotypes. ” Theories and Models of Communication (Difference Job Title and convergence of concept and function) Studies in Communication Sciences provided us science of communication in the framework is not clear in terms of mixing in some of the concepts and nomenclature may be the reason in that transfers of these sciences at the hands of a Type is not specialized and qualified in the field of media and communication.
So still confusion exists between science communication and science media and between theories and models in communication process but after multiple studies in the field of media, communication and development study of media and communications at universities and institutes in the third world and after a significant increase in who have advanced degrees in media from Western universities appeared a new generation of communication scholars provided us this real science in its context where they ruled for differentiating between the media and science communication and science and have sacrificed the relationship between them, and provided us both models and theories on the units and they ruled for differentiating among them.