The area a child grows up in has an effect, for example if a child is brought up on a council estate in poor housing they are more likely to have health problems. If parents are not working or have low income jobs they are likely to buy cheaper food and usually this means lower quality which can lead to health problems. Children and their families may have lower expectations. They might settle for the life that id mapped out. If a child lives in high rise flats or appartments they have less oppportunities to play. In poor quality housing there may not be a garden or safe playing area. This is reducing the childs opportunities to develop their physical gross motor skills.
This of course is not always the case and there are many ways that we can tackle these issues and help to improve the chances and opportunities children have who live in poverty. However, if a lack of nourishing food is a problem due to severe poverty, this can severly damage a childs physical and mental well being. This can have a knock on effect in the sense that they become listless and withdrawn from having no energy, meaning they find it hard to take part in learning activities and won’t have the benefit of developing their learning further. If there is a strained parental relationship due to money worries a child will undoubtedly be affect by this also. Poverty can affect children adversley in many ways and it’s important that they get what they are missing at home when they go to pre-school/nursery.
History of abuse and neglect –
Family environment and background –
Behaviour of mother during pregnancy –
• During pregnancy, if a mother smokes, takes drugs, becomes ill or suffers from stress or anxiety this can result in premature birth and health problems for the baby such as -: low birth weight, undeveloped organs, problems with sight and hearing. These are all problems that could delay their development. Some children are born with conditions that could affect their development such as a blood disorder.
Personal choices –
•If a child or young person as decided for what ever reason they do not want to be educated or leave school before they finish their education, this is their choice and we cannot always show them alternative choices for staying at school.
Looked after/care status –
•This again could have a huge influence as a lot of looked after children are moved around regularly. This will effect their education enormously. Separation and attachment issues are quite often the cause of many reasons not to want to be in school. This is constantly worked on by schools to find the best way to include these children in school and to be able to give them a good standard of education.
•If for example a child has not attended a nursery or play group in their early years this can often set them back from what development stage they should be at when attending school. This could be the lack of nursery places, not good enough teachers to the child having a learning disability that has not been identified yet.
2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.
Albert Bandura – imitating/copying other. Burrhus Skinner – learning is affected by awars and punishments. Jean Piaget – children actively involved in their learning. Shabhna Jerome – active in own learning, develop different ways of thinking at different stages. Lev Vygotsky- Zone of Proximal Development/scaffolding, children actively learning through social interaction.
How current theorist views influence practice today.
Skinner – reward charts and other positive reinforcement techniques. Vygotsky – developed a concept called proximal development which centres on the idea that adults help children to learn and that children help each other . Guiding children to look for answers by imitating what they see in others, listening to instructions and working as part of a group all provide opportunities for them to expand their current base of knowledge. Bruner- developed spiral curriculum which makes us believe that children learn through discovery with direct assistance by adults to encourage them to return to activities time and time again which would develop and extend their learning. His theory is used today as children have plenty of opportunity for free play and child initiated activities which form the majority of the day under the Foundation Phase Curriculum. Bandura – developed the social learning theory which is basically learning through watching others. By setting a good example and modelling good behaviour children will learn how to behave appropriately.