One of the major problems in our country is energy shortage. There are many methods and proposals on how to conserve it such as the use of batteries. One of these is an electrolytic cell. It contains an electrolyte through which an externally generated electric current is passed by a system of electrodes (electrically positive electrode is called the anode and the negative electrode the cathode) in order to produce an electrochemical reaction. Such a reaction involves the transfer of electrons between two electrodes immersed in an ion-conducting medium – the electrolyte.
A batter unit is often referred to as a cell. Electrolytic cells have many practical uses, including the recovery of pure metal from alloys, the plating of one metal with another, and the manufacture of chlorine and sodium hydroxide.1 Coconut (Cocos nucifera) water contains a variety of nutrients including vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, amino acids, enzymes, growth factors, and other nutrients. Coconut water is a good source of the major minerals like magnesium, calcium, and potassium.
It is particularly rich in potassium, an essential nutrient; one 8-ounce cup of coconut water has more potassium than a banana. It also contains a variety of trace elements such as zinc, selenium, iodine, sulfur, manganese, boron, molybdenum, and others. These are derived from volcanic soils and seawater from which the coconut palms are grown. All of these minerals are in the form of electrolytes so they are easily absorbable by the human body. Many of the health benefits attributed to coconut water can be traced to its mineral content.2 With this information, the researchers decided to test if coconut (Cocos nucifera) water is feasible as an electrolyte to conduct electricity to contribute for lessening the energy shortage that we had encountered.
B. Statement of the Problem
This study aims to know if coconut (Cocos nucifera) water can be a source of electricity. Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions: a. How much voltage can be obtained in the coconut (Cocos nucifera) water; b. Is the coconut (Cocos nucifera) water has enough current to lighten a LED light; and c. Is there any similarity between the coconut (Cocos nucifera) water and vinegar as electrolyte in conducting electricity in terms of: electrical voltage ability to light LED Light price being environment friendly
The main objective of this study is to make use of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water as an electrolyte for electrolytic cell. To support the main objective, the sub-objectives are as follows: a. to know the capability of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water as an electrolyte in generating electricity; b. to make an alternative for expensive commercialized electrolytic cell; and c. to lessen the waste because coconut water are usually just thrown away by the vendors. D. Hypothesis
There is a significant difference between the coconut (Cocos nucifera) water used as an electrolyte and the vinegar for electrolytic cell in terms of voltage measured.
E. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study only focuses on how coconut (Cocos nucifera) water can be a source of electricity. The study will be conducted from November 2009 to August 2010 at First City Providential College Laboratory, City of San Jose Del Monte Bulacan. The equipments needed were coconut water, vinegar, beakers, electrodes and the multitester. The beakers will be borrowed at the FCPC’s Laboratory. The coconut water will be collected from Tungkong Mangga Wet Market. F. Significance of the Study
Electricity is not an unlimited resource but must be generated through various means. Just as a decade ago, the Philippines suffered from energy deficit. The energy supplied by the power plants did not reach the level of demand for electricity means that electricity must be efficiently used to avoid another crisis in the future. The problem of energy shortage is not merely a matter of building more power plants since they do not only offer energy solutions but also cause environmental problems. To lessen the problem about that the researchers wants to test if coconut (Cocos nucifera) water can be a source of electricity. In this study the community and the environment will be benefit by this because it is organic and affordable. G. Review of Related Literature
G.1 History of Coconut
The English name coconut, first mentioned in English print in 1555, comes from the Spanish and Portuguese word coco, which means “monkey face.” Spanish and Portuguese explorers found a resemblance to a monkey’s face in the three round indented markings or “eyes” found at the base of the coconut. On the Nicobar Islands of the Indian Ocean, whole coconuts were used as currency for the purchase of goods until the early part of the twentieth century. Coconuts are the fruit of the coconut palm, botanically known as Cocos nucifera, with nucifera meaning “nut-bearing.” The fruit-bearing palms are native to Malaysia, Polynesia and southern Asia, and are now also prolific in South America, India, the Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Florida. The light, fibrous husk allowed it to easily drift on the oceans to other areas to propagate.
The coconut fruit has many food uses for its water, milk, meat, sugar, and oil. It also functions as its own dish and cup. The husk was burned for fuel by natives, but today a seed fiber called coir is taken from the husk and used to make brushes, mats, fishnets, and rope. A very potent fermented toddy or drink is also made from the coconut palm’s sap. Coconut oil, a saturated fat made from dried coconut meat, is used for commercial frying and in candies and margarines, as well as in non-edible products such as soaps and cosmetics. Although it takes up to a year for coconuts to mature, the trees bloom up to thirteen times a year. Fruit is constantly forming, thus yielding a continuous harvest year-round. An average harvest from one tree runs about 60 coconuts, with some trees yielding three times that amount. The coconut’s name is a bit of a misnomer, since it is botanically classified as a drupe and not a nut. It is the largest seed known.3
G.2 Coconut Water
The coconut seed contains a white, fleshy part which is edible and used fresh or dried in cooking. Coconut meat, a soft, pudding like meat provides an excellent source of lauric and caprylic fatty acids which is known for being antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, boosting the immune system and killing off intestinal worms. This meat is high in raw protein, enzyme-rich, easy to digest and contains all the essential amino acids. What makes the coconut water more effective is when we turn the water and meat from young green coconuts and ferment it with kefir grains to turn its natural sugar into a probiotic. It has shown to alkalize the body very quickly so cravings for starches and sugars are replaced for cravings of healthy foods like vegetables. The young green coconut has adequate natural minerals and a high quality raw protein which are valuable for growth and repair of the body. Coconut water is the liquid endosperm inside young coconuts.
As the coconut matures, this liquid largely becomes absorbed into the flesh found in mature coconuts. Coconut water has long been a popular drink in the tropics, especially in Tropical Asia and Trinidad and Tobago, where it is available fresh or bottled. It is naturally fat-free and low in food energy (16.7 calories or 70 kJ per 100 g). Due to its sterility, pH, mineral, and sugar content, coconut water had been successfully used as liquid in intravenous therapy in emergency situations. Coconuts for drinking are packaged and sold in many places. These are typically Thai coconuts whose outer green husk has been removed, and the remainder wrapped in plastic. Coconut water can also be found in regular cans or tetra paks (and often with coconut pulp or coconut jelly added) and is also marketed as a sports drink because of its high potassium and mineral content, which helps the body recover from rigorous exercise. Chemical Properties
The cavity of the coconut is filled with “coconut water” containing sugars, fiber, proteins, anti-oxidants, vitamins and minerals. Young coconuts have more ‘water’ and soft, gel-like meat, and mature coconuts have firm meat and less ‘water.’ The coconut water provides an excellent isotonic electrolyte balance, and an exceptional nutritional food source, which is why it is used as a refreshing drink throughout the humid tropics. Also it contains essential minerals from land and sea to adequately hydrate and nourish the body. In fact, during the Pacific and Vietnam young green coconut water was siphoned directly from the nut to give emergency plasma transfusions to wounded soldiers.4 Coconut water is more nutritious than whole milk; it has no casein and a good balance of magnesium and calcium. It is rich in Vitamin C, acts as a natural diuretic and helps cleanse the liver and kidneys.
It reduces problems for infants helps with GERDS, failure to thrive and other intestinal disorders such as indigestion, colitis, gastric ulcers, and diarrhea. It serves as an antioxidant, scavenging many types of destructive free radicals and protecting hemoglobin from nitrite-induced oxidation. Chelating properties the coconut water contains “gold: and “silver” and sulphurated proteins which is crucial to detox mercury and other heavy metals out of the cells and membranes, also it makes a certain “tension on the surface” which solves the heavy into a solution. Also it has certain fatty acids and sulfur holded amino acids to attach to the mercury. He said it is really water which contains a nature’s “trick”. The following are the major chemical constituents of coconut water: Sugars
Sugars in the forms of glucose and fructose form an important constituent of the tender nut water. The concentration of sugars in the nut water steadily increases from about 1.5 per cent to about 5 – 5.5 per cent in the early months of maturation and then slowly falls reaching about 2 per cent at the stage of the full maturity of the nut. In the early stages of maturity sugars are in the form of glucose and fructose (reducing sugars) and sucrose (non-reducing sugar) appears only in later stages which increases with the maturity while the reducing sugars fall. In the fully mature nut approximately 90 per cent of the total sugars are sucrose. Vitamins and Minerals
Tender coconut water contains most of the minerals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorous, iron, and copper, sulphur and chlorides. Among the minerals more than half is potassium the concentration of which is markedly influenced by potash manuring. Tender coconut water being rich in potassium and other minerals plays a major role to increase the urinary output. It contains both ascorbic acid and vitamins of B group. The concentration of ascorbic acid ranges from 2.2 to 3.7mg per ml, which gradually diminishes as the kernel surrounding the water begins to harden.
Coconut water contains small amounts of protein. The percentage of arginine, alanine, cysteine and serene in the protein of tender coconut water are higher than those in cow’s milk. Since it does not contain any complex protein the danger of producing shock to the patients is minimized.5
Analysis of Mature and Tender Coconut Water
History of Vinegar
The Babylonians used it to preserve foods and as a seasoning for their food. We have record of the Greek using it to preserve foods and Roman soldiers made a beverage used as they travelled. Not much has changed with our use of vinegar, we still use it to preserve foods and season with. The name comes from the simple compounding of 2 words by the French and probably not uttered pleasantly. When a cask of wine got a crack in it and became exposed to air they most likely uttered ……vin ..aiger ….which means ..sour wine.
Vinegar is an acid with a low ph. So many germs and virus are killed with it. Michael Mullen a spokesperson for him Heinz Corporation says that straight 5% vinegar will kill 80% of the germs and virus. Heinz says they can’t make the claim on the bottle that it kills bacteria because of the EPA laws. If you do the research though you will find that the claims are sound.
Here are some other ailments that people use vinegar to help heal. Relieve mild arthritis pain, cure a stomach ache, dissolving warts, relieving itching from mosquito or bug bites, soothing sunburn pains, relieving a sore throat, jelly fish stings, these are only a few, there are hundreds of applications used by many even in the health field. It is said that vinegar is also very versatile for cleaning and sanitizing. Keeping a spray bottle of straight 5% distilled vinegar is useful to clean and disinfect many things. You can sanitize your cutting board and spray hard to clean kitchen appliances that have many nooks and crannies that come in contact with bacteria. Also spray on door handles, and all the bathroom fixtures to disinfect. Its odor dissipates fairly quickly. Buying distilled vinegar in a gallon bottle is very economical. Toothbrushes can be boiled for a minute in vinegar to kill germs. You can also kill molds and fungus. Spraying feet helps prevent athletes’ foot.6 Physical Properties
Vinegar is mainly a dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid and this is reflected in its physical and chemical properties. It’s the product of two biochemical processes. These processes are alcoholic fermentation and acid fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation converts natural sugar to alcohol. Acid fermentation converts alcohol to acid via microorganisms, which are present in the air, we breathe, called acetobacter. The acid part of vinegar is what gives it its sour taste and its antiseptic (germ killing) properties as well as its cleaning properties. Vinegar isn’t simply a dilute solution of acetic acid. Depending on the fruit or other organic starting produce and the amount of processing, it can contain varying amounts of minerals, enzymes, vitamins, fibre and other organic compounds. But these are just minor components of the vinegar, even though they are all major contributors to its flavour, colour, aroma and overall nutritional benefits.7
The pH of vinegar depends upon how much acid is present, but most commercial distilled white vinegars contain 5% acetic acid and have a pH of about 2.4. To put that in perspective, the following table compares the pH of vinegar to some other common solutions:
There’s more than one way to make a battery light up several bulbs at the same time. For example, you can connect the bulb in a kind of chain, one after another, or ‘in series’. In a series circuit the current from the battery passes through the first bulb, then through the next bulb and so on.8
The battery produces the current by pushing electrons along the wires, the stronger the push, the more electrons flow along the wire each second. The current heats the thin wire inside the bulb and makes it glow brightly.
The strength of this push is measured in volts. The word “volts” comes from the name of the Italian who invented the first battery.9
An electric current is a movement or flow of minute particles called electrons. Normally, electrons are attached to an atom and circle round its central nucleus in orbits- just like artificial satellites orbiting the earth.
A current of electricity must have a completely unbroken path, or circuit. If we could follow a current as it flowed along a wire we should eventually arrive back at our starting point.10
The electromotive force or EMF develops between the electrodes and if they are connected by a wire a current will flows. All such cells have a limited lifetime because the oxidation or reduction process reaches completion.
The EMF of a cell depends on the chemical composition of the electrodes and the electrolyte not on how large it is. The size of a cell does, however, affect its capacity. Large electrodes and a large capacity- it will continue to produce current for a longer time. The current it is able to deliver depends crucially on the size and separation of the electrodes. A cell with large electrodes close together has a low internal resistance and is consequently capable of delivering larger current.11 G.5 Related Studies
In the past few decades, there has been a marked advance in the development of technology especially in the field of electromagnetism. Different ways of
consuming and conserving of energy in our daily life such as the use of the power plants, an alternative source of energy (renewable and non-renewable energy) and also the use of batteries are all innovated. Batteries in all of the studies gives more benefit especially in times of energy insufficiency. The following are some of the studies conducted to search for a new material to conduct electricity and new alternative batteries: Kamias and Tamarind as Electrolyte for Dry cell Batteries
They used kamias and tamarind to produce electrolyte for dry cell batteries. Kamias and tamarind are citrus fruits so it contains many electrolytes. Citrus Fruits as Multi-cell Battery Citrus fruits like oranges and lemons are excellent conductors. They don’t produce much energy on their own but if you utilize a few of them in a series within the circuit, you can produce enough electricity to power a light bulb. This creates a multi-cell battery, which makes the citrus fruits electricity more powerful and practical. Copper Sulfate as Electrolyte
The electrodes used are copper and zinc. Results and findings showed that the solution generated 0.7V, that didn’t light a 1.2V bulb.
Potato as Source of Electricity
The study is conducted by using potato as a source of electricity. Through copper and zinc electrodes, juices generate electricity. Results and findings showed that it generated 1.2V. But it didn’t light up the miniature bulb; instead, it lit up the lEd as substitute for the bulb. Sawdust as Electricity
The project of light-generating electricity with the used of sawdust was developed by the researchers at the N.E. Bauman Moscow State Engineering University which can generate a 10 kilowatts of electricity. The installation is not only cost-efficient. It also contributes to saving the environment. Using this model, you can generate electricity from waste-perfect for farms that never run out of vegetable waste and wood. The result in an even more economical cycle of resources, something that both a farmer and Mother Earth would appreciate. Alipuina galanga as an Electrolyte
for Wet Cell Batteries
Unknown to many, langkwas (Alipuina galanga) is a highly acidic plant, with 48 percent methyl cinnamate as its active ingredient. Because of its acidic properties, the researchers tested langkwas’ effectiveness as an electrolyte in wet cell batteries. Chapter 2
The materials used in the experimentation are coconut water, copper wire (positive electrode), and galvanized nails (negative electrode), plastic cups as containers, beakers for measurements, multitester for getting the voltage, alligator clips to connect the circuit, LED light and calculator for testing, masking tape to hold the electrodes and vinegar as the control.
a. Preparations of Coconut Water
Coconuts were first collected. The water was obtained from the coconut. When the coconut water is now collected from the coconut it will be strained using a clean cloth to remove the impurities. The filtered coconut water would then serve as the electrolyte for the modified electrolytic cell. b. Preparation of the Electrolytic Cell
The electrolytic cell battery used coconut (Cocos nucifera) water as electrolyte. A pair of electrodes was placed on each beaker and connected in series circuit using the wire. Each beaker represented one electrolytic cell, and once it was connected in series with another cell, the potential difference produced increased. C. Determining the Potential Difference Produced
The potential difference was measured using multitester. The positive and the negative terminals of multitester are attached to the electrodes submerged in the 200 ml electrolyte. Then the reading from the multitester was recorded. D. Treatment
To determine the feasibility of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water as electrolyte over vinegar electrolyte, eight experimental setups were prepared. The first setup had one cell; the second setup had two cells; the third setup had three cells; the fourth setup had four cells; the fifth setup had five cells; the sixth setup had six cells; the seventh setup had seven cells; and the eighth setup had eight cells. (Setup means one vinegar electrolyte and one coconut ((Cocos nucifera) water as electrolyte battery). All setups differed only in the number of cells. Having different number of cells was important to be able to see the consistency of the potential difference produced by both coconut (Cocos nucifera) water and vinegar electrolytes.
E. Statistical Analysis
To know whether there are differences among the treatments, a technique called T-Test was done. This technique was used to test whether the coconut (Cocos nucifera) water can be a source of electricity. The test of the hypothesis was done at 0.05 level of significance and the critical value of 2… The null hypothesis is accepted if the T-calculated