Every year, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 50-100 million people all over the world fall victim to dengue fever. And every year, 20,000 of these victims end up dead (the Philippine Star, 2012). According to the report of the Philippine Association of Entomologists (PAE), the incidence and threat of dengue continue to rise, year after year. (Samaniego, 2012). This deadly disease is just caused by a single bite of a carrying mosquito. The mosquito is a common flying insect that is found around the world. The mosquito is often a carrier of diseases, such as malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, dog heartworm, West Nile virus, and many others.
The females, who drink blood, can carry disease from one animal to another as they feed. The mosquito goes through four separate and distinct stages of its life cycle and they are as follows: Egg, Larva, pupa, and adult. It has been found out by studies that buyo, lime and papaya has potential properties that can terminate mosquito larvae. This study entitled ‘Buyo (Piper betle L.), Lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Leaves Powder against Mosquito Larvae ’ aims to investigate the effectiveness of the three leaves powder on the idea of destroying first the source of the problem by terminating first the larvae.
Objective of the Study
This study, aims to determine the capability of the three plants’ leaves namely: Buyo, Lime and Papaya as a terminating agent, specifically it aims to: 1.Determine the efficacy of the three plant’s leaves against mosquito larvae in the form of powder. 2.Determine if there is a significant difference between the effects of the treatments towards the mosquito larvae.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the efficacy Buyo, Lime and Papaya in terminating mosquito larvae. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1.Can the three plants serve as a newfound terminating agent for mosquito larvae? 2.Is there any significant difference between them experimental and control set-ups? 3.Is there any further effect on the final treatment on the test organisms?
Statement of Hypothesis
Based on the foregoing problems, the researchers formulated the following null hypothesis: 1.The three plants cannot serve as a newfound terminating agent for mosquito larvae. 2.There are no significant difference between the experimental and control set-ups. 3.There are no further effects on the final treatment on the test organisms.
Statement of the Hypothesis
The researchers infer that:
1.The three plants can serve as a newfound terminating agent for mosquito larvae. 2.There is a significant difference between the experimental and control set-ups. 3.There is a further effect on the final treatment on the test organisms.
Significance of the Study
According to the report of the Philippine Association of Entomologists (PAE), the incidence and threat of dengue continue to rise, year after year. (Samaniego, 2012). The number of deaths from the dengue virus also rose to 328, which is higher than the 293 cases recorded during the same period last year. This deadly disease is just caused by a single bite of a carrying mosquito. This study aims to prevent destroying first the source of the problem by terminating first the larvae without triggering bad side effects. The study may further serve as the baseline information about the worth of the selected plants.
Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study, ‘Buyo, Lime, and Papaya Leaves Powder against Mosquito Larvae,’ focuses on the potential properties of the three plants towards mosquito larvae in different set-ups. This study limits and focuses only to the topics related to this project.
Definition of key terms
Buyo – is a vine-like plant that can reach 150 to 180 centimeters in height. It is usually used for medicinal uses. Lime – leaves have broadly ovate blades, blunt-pointed at both ends, 3.5-6 cm long, 2.7-4 cm wide with petioles 3,5 to 6 cm long, broadly winged, up to 4 cm wide; wing area sometimes exceeding leaf area. Papaya – is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. Dengue –
Review on the Related Literature
Buyo (Piper betle L.), Lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Leaves Powder against Mosquito Larvae
The mosquito is a common flying insect that is found around the world. There are about 2,700 species of mosquitoes. Mosquitoes can fly about 1 to 1.5 miles per hour (1.6-2.4 kph). Mosquito Bites: Females drink blood and the nectar of plants; the males only sip plant nectar. When a female bites, she also injects an anticoagulant (anti-clotting chemical) into the prey to keep the victim’s blood flowing. She finds her victims by sight and smell, and also by detecting their warmth. Not all mosquito species bite humans. Disease Carrier: The mosquito is often a carrier of diseases, such as malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, dog heartworm, West Nile virus, and many others. The females, who drink blood, can carry disease from one animal to another as they feed. Anatomy: Like all insects, the mosquito has a body divided into three parts (head, thorax, and abdomen), a hard exoskeleton, and six long, jointed legs. Mosquitoes also have a pair of veined wings. They have a straw-like proboscis and can only eat liquids. Life Cycle: The complete life-cycle of a mosquito takes about a month.
After drinking blood, adult females lay a raft of 40 to 400 tiny white eggs in standing water or very slow-moving water. Within a week, the eggs hatch into larvae (sometimes called wrigglers) that breathe air through tubes which they poke above the surface of the water. Larvae eat bits of floating organic matter and each other. Larvae molt four times as they grow; after the fourth molt, they are called pupae (also called tumblers). Pupae alsolive near the surface of the water, breathing through two horn-like tubes (called siphons) on their back. Pupae do not eat. An adult emerges from a pupa when the skin splits after a few days. The adult lives for only a few weeks.
The Small-flowered papeda (Biasong) stands out from all others of the subgenus Papeda because of its very small flowers, only 1.2-1.3 cm wide, white, with a trace of purple on the outside. The fruits are 5-7 cm long; surface fairly smooth or with transverse corrugations, lemon yellow; skin comparatively thick; pulp rather juicy, grayish, acid; aroma similar to that of samuyao; Seeds are numerous. The leaves have broadly ovate blades, blunt-pointed at both ends, 3.5-6 cm long, 2.7-4 cm wide with petioles 3,5 to 6 cm long, broadly winged, up to 4 cm wide; wing area sometimes exceeding leaf area. Seeds are numerous.
The tree attains a height of 7.5 to 9 meters, with comparatively small but sharp spines. This species is cultivated in the southern Philippine Islands, especially Mindanao, where it is called biasong. The fruit was generally thought of as being inedible, but Ponchit Enrile from the Aseya Bistro in Davao City told me that it is a favourite flavouring for kinilaw (raw fish or seafood marinated with vinegar and limes) and Tom Yum Kung. The fruit can be bought in wet markets all over Mindanao and fetches high prices when not in season. When in season it would sell for 10 US cents a piece.
The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft) tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria, but are much smaller and wax-like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into large fruit – 15–45 cm (5.9–18 in) long and 10–30 cm (3.9–12 in) in diameter. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.
The betel leaf is cultivated in most of South and Southeast Asia. Since it is a creeper, it needs a compatible tree or a long pole for support. Betel requires high land and especially fertile soil. Waterlogged, saline and alkali soils are unsuitable for its cultivation. In Bangladesh, farmers called barui prepare a garden called a barouj in which to grow betel. The barouj is fenced with bamboo sticks and coconut leaves. The soil is plowed into furrows of 10 to 15 metres’ length, 75 centimetres in width and 75 centimetres’ depth. Oil cakes, manure, and leaves are thoroughly incorporated with the topsoil of the furrows and wood ash. The creeper cuttings are planted at the beginning of the monsoon season. Proper shade and irrigation are essential for the successful cultivation of this crop.
Betel needs constantly moist soil, but there should not be excessive moisture. Irrigation is frequent and light, and standing water should not remain for more than half an hour. Dried leaves and wood ash are applied to the furrows at fortnightly intervals and cow dung slurry is sprinkled. Application of different kinds of leaves at monthly intervals is believed advantageous for the growth of the betel. In 3 to 6 months the vines reach 150 to 180 centimeters in height and they will branch. Harvest begins, with the farmer plucking the leaf and its petiole with his right thumb. The harvest lasts 15 days to one month. The harvested leaves are consumed locally or exported to other parts of Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the United States. Betel is an important part of the economy in rural Bangladesh.