The post-modern era of ideology can be seen as having come one full circle when compared to the pre-modern era. The modern era was the one of industrial revolution where supreme importance was accorded to the subject of natural sciences. All derivation of value in business would depend upon the advancement of science and technology and the machines employed by a person. Even the employees were treated as commodities and a scientific optimum of their critical mass was attempted to be arrived at.
In sharp contrast, the post-modern studies defy the proposition that there can be an objective truth. They argue that the importance of science and rationality has been overstated by their predecessors. Much more importance is given here to cultural differences and the diversity in people around the world due to their race, gender, color etc. Businesses are, therefore, in the 21st century run quite differently.
Value derivation depends upon different parameters now. Cultural diversity among employees is preferred by most employers. Businesses need to portray their goods or services as having an inclusive universal appeal cutting across diverse religions, cultures, customs etc. Technology has become more or less a constant and thus it is these new factors which a business must depend upon to outplay its competitors.