The number of items per unit area or volume is referred to as density. If these items are living, especially human beings, this is known as population density. It is the number of people per square unit. Population density is directly proportional to the number of humans. This simply implies that as the numbers grow, the population density increases simultaneously, the area of the land being constant. It is common to find people clustered in more hospitable areas and avoid areas such as high mountains and deserts.
Therefore, it is said that such inhospitable areas have low population densities while the clustered areas have high population densities. Some of these regions with high population densities include cities and towns which are characterized by small areas and high urbanization. With the increase in population densities, problems arise. Noise has been a big nuisance in many workplaces and residential houses. The displeasing sounds created by either human or machines interferes with normal activities and the balance of life.
As a matter of fact, the word noise is derived from Latin’s “nausea” which means sickness. Transportation has been the leading cause of noise coming from motor vehicles. Those residents next to industries and the workers inn these industries have also been hard hit by the noise made by the machinery involved. In offices, the office machinery, alarms, construction and some office equipment have been cited as causes of noise. The effects could impact both health and behavior.
Noise is known to cause annoyance, disturbances in sleep, loss of hearing sensitivity, aggression and other negative effects. In serious cases, depression, stress, panic attacks and forgetfulness may result. cardiovascular effects are also known to be caused by high noise levels which lead to high blood pressure. One of the biggest challenges man is currently facing is the unavailability of space. It is therefore wise to content with whatever space one has. The only way out of the dangers of noise would be therefore not to seek quiet places but rather control the amounts of noise.
Suggestions have been put forward for construction of ‘quiet buildings’ (Australian Academy of Science, 2002). These buildings will permit minimal noise based on their design. The walls should be designed in such a way that they can absorb most of the noise. This will be accomplished if dense materials are used to build such walls. Brick walls have been used in many places to serve this purpose. The inside walls could be layers of sound proof materials such as plasterboards. When it comes to windows and doors, double glazing has been quite effective to keep off noise.
The space between the two panes are widened enough. It is also important to seal all the spaces that can allow sound penetration at the fittings. Tiles have served well for roofing especially when combined with sound proof ceilings. The other way to reduce noise pollution in workplaces and residential areas is to acquire silent machinery and equipment. Some machines including vehicles are great sources of noise especially when worn out. It is thus convenient to acquire machines that do not emit a lot of noise.
Most of them would be fitted with silencers or devices to limit the noise they produce. Wheels, rollers and rubber bindings have been fitted in many equipment to ensure that they do not generate a lot of unnecessary noise. There is great difference in the usage of space for a person from America and that from China due to the difference in population densities in the two regions. Personal space is vital in human life. It is natural for human to compete for space. It is dictated by the environment one is used to.
That is why studies show that the Chinese, unlike the Americans don’t feel uncomfortable when in close contact during conversations unlike their American counterparts (Wu Man Fat, 2004). With the increase in the number of human beings, it becomes necessary for demarcation of boundaries lest people invade what is considered other people’s area of jurisdiction. Thom-Santelli (p. 1) describes territoriality as the the behaviors that are exhibited by an individual to suggest ownership towards social, physical or cognitive objects.
Marking is commonly associated with territoriality where an object is placed to indicate an individual’s territorial intentions. A specific example for marking is personalization and could include decorations to be identified with an individual. Defensive methods such as password protection or locking doors are regarded as territoriality traits. In animals, fight reaction is very common unlike in humans. Animals would fiercely fight to secure their territories from intruders.
Palen and Dourish (2003) discovered that traditionally, privacy was regarded as a situation of social withdrawal. It is however not the case as many researchers view privacy as the process of getting to examine an individual’s inner self or a group. It is argued that privacy is dynamic and would vary with environment (Altman, 1975). It is therefore normal to avoid people at other times but yearn to contact them at other times. There has to be a balance between the desired privacy and the the achieved privacy nonetheless. Loneliness sets in when the achieved privacy exceeds the desired.
When the opposite happens and the desired privacy exceeds the achieved privacy, annoyance and the feeling of being crowded results. With a combination of other environmental mechanisms such as personal space and territoriality, optimum privacy is achievable. The increase in human population has necessitated self defence mechanisms to protect oneself from the negative impact of population increase. It is for instance normal to be barred from checking into somebody else’s e-mail with a protection password. It is also normal not to enter into locked premises.
News of brothers fighting for a piece of land and many more happenings are good examples to tell that self defence is real. Need for personal space ensures that one has adequate room to carry out personal activities without external interference. Privacy too is necessary to give an individual time to recollect and figure out personal achievements. It gives a person to engage in personal undertakings that are unethical in public. It is through territoriality that one is able to protect personal space and avoid falling into problems associated with limited space.
It serves to unearth individuals who are tempted to enter into other people’s territories. This gives human some sense of responsibility in whatever they conceive theirs. Despite all the measures man has undertaken to guard one’s territory, there have been cases of forceful occupation of other people’s territories. These would include cases of burglary and hacking into other people’s e-mails. These evils are a result of man trying to acquire even more space. It can thus be concluded that these three concepts help understand man’s survival for the fittest tactics.