Political instability has become a huge and serious problem for both developing and underdeveloped countries. Pakistan is also in one of these countries which is facing the problem of political instability. The instability of government, inefficiency of political parties and a weak political culture make Pakistan a politically instable state. Political stability is important for keeping the society integrated, maintaining legitimacy, economic development and supremacy of law in a state.
In political stable condition people have power they use their powers for the development of nation, and in politically instable condition people feel powerless, lose their trust on government and they prefer their own interest in front of state and then the society leads to split. Political stability is very important for nation-building. There are many countries which have comparatively stable political system such as in China, Egypt and so on.
Many underdeveloped nations of Asia and Africa including Pakistan have been confused as how to overcome the problems of national integration, economic development, political participation which have been grown simultaneously in these states. There are five issue areas as described by Lenard Binder, which causes political instability in a state. These areas are: “Identity crises, legitimacy Crisis, Penetration crisis, Participation crisis and distribution crisis.
” These all issues play an effective role in making the politics instable, but we only discussed the first two issues, the identity crisis and legitimacy crisis in Pakistan. Identity crisis creates negative effects on the sentiments of nationalism and the feeling of people towards political system. The dismemberment of East Pakistan and present situation in Sindh and balochistan is occurring due to the identity crisis. Identity crisis mostly occurs in pluralistic societies in the form of ethnic, language and religious differences.
Pakistan is also a pluralistic society that’s why politically instability becomes more serious in Pakistan and the role of our leaders becomes more important than any other factor. In Pakistan there is also a problem of dysfunction of federal system. The federal crisis occurs when the pressure of regional demands goes to an extreme and don’t get satisfactory response from the state, and it cause separation from the federation. East Pakistan break-up was also due to this reason. A federation cannot exist or survive without a spirit of partnership and co-operation between the provinces and centre.
The problem of identity and legitimacy crisis is closely related to each other. The sense of identity may also be developed by accepting the legitimacy of the authority. The legitimacy crisis regarded with the form of governmental institutions, the break down in the constitutional structure and the authority of leadership. Legitimacy crisis occur when people reject the leaders claimed based on historical preference and the leaders thrown out when they fail to fulfill the promises and then this situation leads to the crisis of authority.
The problem of political stability in the context of identity and legitimacy crisis in Pakistan has been sharpened mainly due to the effects of rapid socio-political mobilization and, excessive and un institutionalized role of civil and military bureaucracy, which has unbalanced the entire political order of the country. The leadership in Pakistan is always from top to bottom, and in actual the process of becoming a leader starts from bottom to top, in which the first step is social welfare service then entering in political arena.
The leadership in Pakistan is based on family patterns. In Pakistan the family leadership is popular amongst people because of lack of education. The lack of education and decay of leadership are the two most important contributing factors to the political instability in Pakistan. In Pakistan political instability is also due to our weak history of leadership that’s why the theme of a national leadership lost in these various levels of leadership. The other form of leadership exist in Pakistan for a long time is dictatorship and it rule in three decades.
Dictatorship also the cause of political instability, it makes the institution of leadership weak. Weak organization of political parties also makes Pakistani politics instable. The present political trend in Pakistan is forming coalition amongst different political parties, which is the reason of current instable conditions. Coalition set up is considered temporary arrangement in political scenario everywhere in the world. Lack of clear majority of anyone political party also shows that people do not trust any of these partners that is why all enjoy less support.
The most important and immediate challenge the political instable condition of Pakistan is creating is mishandling of issue of war on terrorism. Since September 2008 USA leading the NATO forces started attacking frontier areas of Pakistan and violated the sovereignty of Pakistan in the name of combating terrorism and chasing the terrorists may be hiding in these areas. These attacks are increasing by the times. Moreover, the indirectly contributing factor towards the worsening political situation is external interference of other powers for their selfish interests.
Pakistan is a rich country in terms of important minerals, gas and important coasts the finding of resources and being a gate way towards the hot waters has made Pakistan an attractive country for external powers. The present world is a global world where every field is determined by intense competition: state craft, conduct of diplomacy, effective policy making, and strong economy are the most important challenges every state has to face. Political instability in any state leads to disorder amongst the units.
The global world is providing aid and support to Pakistan but in presence of insincere leadership and political instable conditions the huge foreign aid is not giving any positive results. If we consider the case of Pakistan, it seems quite agreeable that adequate economic growth could only be possible if there are stable institutions in the political order. The political stability can be achieved if legitimacy of the institutions and personal legitimacy of the ruler has been solved.
Conclusion: The present political instability in Pakistan has increased the external and internal challenges for its society and state. The present and immediate need of the time is a stable political system, since Pakistan has to combat inside terrorism, has to face and convince its own people that this war is necessary, and Pakistan has to satisfy its allies and as well as neighbors and manage the pressure that Pakistan is taking positive steps to counter the situation.
The main problem in this whole scenario is lack of trust amongst Pakistan and the allies and neighbors keep exploiting the situation. This situation has endangered the future of Pakistani people who are now considering Pakistan is an insecure place. Without politically stability Pakistan did not become the world best state.