Top 20 (+1) List of Political Ideologies You Should Know For APUSH 1. conservative – Generally a trend to maintain a traditional stance on an issue.? For example, if one was culturally conservative in the United States, they would probably be against an issue like girls wearing 6 inch tall pink mohawks to school because it is a traditionally unacceptable hairstyle. If one were fiscally conservative, they would probably be against an excess of government taxing and spending; they would want to? be “conservative” with their money.
2.liberalism – Only lately used as an opposite to the term conservative; historically, it means to hold individual liberties as the most important social or political goal.? For example, if one were culturally liberal, they would hold that girls could wear 6 inch tall pink mohawks to school because it is that person’s individual choice. If one were fiscally liberal, they would probably be for government spending on stuff like space exploration; even though it is not absolutely necessary for human survival, it is still culturally important.
3. right-wing – Are usually people or ideas that seek to uphold or return the traditional establishment of a civil society and the preservation of the domestic culture, usually in the face of external forces for change. For example, many right-wing thinkers believe that all people in America should legally have to learn English. 4. left-wing – Are usually people who wish to change or abolish the existing political or social order. Sometimes, under this category are people who try to promote equality in wealth and privilege.
For example, many left-wing people believe that helping the poor at the expense of the rich is a good thing. 5. socialism – A broad term for any political ideology that promotes collective ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods and services, as opposed to private ownership (like we have in the U. S. , if your dad owns a car factory, he owns it, not the government). Communism is considered socialist. Traditionally, most trade unions can be seen as socialist because the workers “collectively own” the union.
Also, social security can be seen as a socialist because it is a government organized and regulated system. 6. democratic – A system of government by which political control is retained by the people and exercised directly by citizens. Notice the little “d”. This does not mean the political party. 7. republic – A system of government by which at least some of the people have control over the government and monarchy does not exist. Notice the little “r”. This does not mean the political party. 8. fascism – A system of government that is heavily authoritarian and nationalistic.
9. authoritarian – describes a form of government that typically emphasizes the sole authority of the state in a republic or union. 10. nationalism – A political movement which holds that a nation, usually defined in terms of ethnicity or culture, has the right to constitute an independent political community based on a shared history and common destiny. 11. radicalism – Usually denotes a drastic shift from the traditional norm, usually to an extreme. 12. libertarianism – Usually a political philosophy which prioritize individual liberty and usually seeks to minimize the state.
13. communism – is a socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an equal, classless based on common ownership of the means of production and property in general. 14. populism – is a political ideology which promotes “the common people” above or versus “the privileged”. 15. progressivism – Usually seen as a political response to the Industrial Revolution, socialism, and anarchism; it is a political ideology that strives towards social justice, promotion of democracy, and government efficiency. See Progressive Party. 16.
Marxism – A specific flavor of communism derived from the writings of Karl Marx. see communism. 17. federalism (Hamiltonianism) – Alexander Hamilton’s branch of political thought that promotes a strong central government composed of weaker states. This particular flavor also includes very strong governmental intervention in economic issues. 18. Jeffersonian Republicanism – In contrast to the above, a school of thought promoted by Thomas Jefferson that promotes states and individual rights over a strong central government. This flavor usually necessitates a virtuous populace.
19. Jacksonian Democracy – Usually seen as a mixture of the two above, promoted by Andrew Jackson, this system sees an increase of political involvement by the “common man” and an increase of the powers of a strong federal government. 20. localism – a political or economic philosophy that prioritizes local needs over most else. Example, a city passing a law that the only tomatoes that can be sold must be grown from a local farm is considered localism. 21. anarchism – the promotion of the abolition of all forms of government.
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