This policy was enacted by former president of united state President Bill Clinton issues an executive memorandum on government to government relation with Native American tribal governments. The president directed the policy to all executive departments and agencies. The policy was to recognize the tribal government and to give Native American to take action that affect federal recognition. The executive agencies where directed by the president to implement the activities that affect the native tribal government in sensitive manner by respecting their tribal sovereignty.
The federal government recognizes that there are 554 Native American and Alaskan tribe with their own culture and identity. This policy is therefore focused on federally recognized Indian tribes. GSA aims to establish a government -to-government relationship with federally recognized Indian tribal governments. GSA recognizes the tribal rights and allows them to set there goals and priority for the well being of the nations. GSA is required to consult with Indian tribal government when designing solution and tailoring federal programs to address unique needs of tribal communities.
GSA will provide tribes with procedure and information concerning GSA opportunities available to them, this may include obtaining excess real and personal properties or obtaining employment. (Jolive’tte, 2006). Federal departments together with GSA will corporate in order to add, change or further the goals of this policy. GSA is required to incorporate this policy into short and long term management process of the tribes. This policy implemented to commit the GSA into complying with the principle and practices of the consultation and communication with the Indians and Native American tribal governments.
The policy also required that the GSA establish government-to-government relationships with the federally recognized Native American tribal governments. (Rury, 2002). Problem which necessitated the GSA policy The main problems which necessitated the implementation of the policy are the lack of environmental, cultural and natural resources protection. The policy focused on defining the Indian tribes as a community they the secretary of interior acknowledges to exist according to the federally recognized Indian tribe list act.
It defines tribal trust resources as those resources either on or off Indian learns reserved by for Indian tribes through judicial decision or treaties that are protected by United State. Indian nations are considered to be sovereign and have unique political and illegal characteristic. The Indian nations therefore have inherent right to self governance. Due to this federal government are required to implement policies that affect the self governance and trust resources of these communities in a sensitive and knowledge manners.
As a unique tribe Indian communities forced themselves into self isolation and separation, thus leading to the implementation of this policy so as to integrate them into American society. (Lundquist, 2004). Nation Native American lands policy Historical background During the past few years EPA and other tribes have being implementing then underground storage tanks (UST) programmes on Native American lands. Since Native American tribes are sovereign communities under federal law. The underground storage tanks located on native lands usually are not subject to state laws.
The main goal of implementing this policy is to protect human health and the environment on tribal lands. This policy emphasizes on making all tanks to comply so as to prevent leakage and clean up persisting leaks. The objectives of this policy are to maximize corporation with Native American tribes. In accordance with Indian policy. The policy focuses on providing federal implementation of the federal underground storage tanks regulation and improving the current data on tank population and characteristic.
This policy was formed to assist in developing of tribally run regulatory and clean programs based on Indian authority tribal willingness and funding. Problem which necessitated the land policy Problems that lead to implementation of this policy were coasted by the risk of land and environmental pollution due to storage tanks leakages. Companies without notification and certification were installing dangerous storages tank on the tribal lands, putting them at risk. Companies that were not satisfied did not attend to calls of spills, off fills and releases.
By ignoring the alls the companies were exposing tribal communities to environmental hazards. There were no measures to govern underground storage tanks and hence the companies could not be held accountable for the hazards. This means that the companies would become irresponsible and ignore the interest of the tribal communities. The intense migration of Americans to the west caused a lot of trouble to the diverse Native Americans who were already on the western lands. The new migrants did not only travel through the Native American lands, but also began using the land for their own benefit through agriculture and mining.
As a result, these new practices disrupted the tradition ways of life of the Native Americans. The settlement of whites in the native plains brought about starvation, illnesses such as smallpox and influenza thus causing death to a large percentage of the native population. On realizing that so many people were migrating to the west, the government formulated land policies that restricted Native Americans to reservation. These land reservations were exclusively reserved for the Native Americans. They separated Native Americans from the whites to reduce the potential for conflicts.
This policy was enacted to ensure that the Native Americans were provided with adequate lands for acquire skills necessary for a civilized life. The policy specified boundaries and established payment for lands that were offered to the native tribes. American Indian and Alaska native tribal government policy Historical background This policy is based on the united state constitution Supreme Court decision. Tribal laws and political relation between Indian nation and federal government the united state has a responsibility to protect the sovereignty, tribal lands, and the natural resources of Indian tribes.
This policy is directs department official and their staff on fulfilling the responsibilities and trust obligation that may potentially have impact on American Indian and Alaska native tribes, native traditional, culture and natural resources. Indian nation have an inherent right to self governmental authority because they are sovereign nation with unique political and legal characteristic. (Rosenthal, 2000). Therefore federal activities that affect the self governance rights of native tribe need policy implementation in a sensitive manner.
This policy aims at pursuing actions that uphold federally recognized and reserved rights of Indian communities. It recognizes that some tribes have federally recognized tribe while other have treaty protected rights to resource within reservation boundaries and territories and thus will protect and promote these rights. The policy insures treaty compliance and resource interest of native tribe during interaction with state governments concerning action that affect the native people.
The policy recognizes the Indian government as sovereign entities and gives them the primary authority to the protection and welfare of their citizens. It recognizes the right of every Indian nation and allows it to set its own goals and priority in protecting and managing its cultural resources. (Krinsky, 1996). Problems that necessitated d the American Indian and Alaska native tribal government policy The American system has been trying to incorporate the Indian tribes into their society.
However this faced much resistance from he native tribes who did not want to erode their traditional culture. In order to attain the confidence of Indians and assimilate them into the American society, Americans implemented policies that respected the rights of Indians and protected them from wrongs. In the past years there were conflicts between tribes concerning the ownership of natural resources, tribal land and boundaries and resource interests. These communities had difficulties in deciding what natural resources and tribal lands belonged to which community.
Therefore the policy was implemented to settle tribal and land disputes between different tribes. Initially, matters concerning Indian and Alaskan native tribes were not incorporated into the fiscal year budget. Due to this, the Indian tribal governments were not consulted during decision making processes, predraft constitutions or matters that directly impact on their communities. This tribal government policy was implemented in order to promote government-to-government relationships between the federal government and the federally recognized Native American tribal governments.
(Bonilla-Silva, 2006). The Native American health policy Historical background of this policy Health care for Indian tribes usually comes from a separate system than that of mainstream America. The Indian health service is the main federal agency bestowed with the primary responsibility of fulfilling the United States obligations to provide health care for American Indian and Alaskan tribes. The Indian health service and tribes have developed a number of hospitals and other programmes in order to meet the federal trust obligations.
However most reservation-based American Indians and Alaskan tribes have a separate health care delivery system, which is contradictory to the united state mainstream. Many American Indian and Alaska natives are not eligible to receive Indian health service and those that are not eligible live in areas where such services are not available. The Indian health care system changes routinely depending on political landscape. Health policy emerged due to the growing disregard for American Indian culture and history despite the implementation of this policy.
Serious health problems still persist both on reservation and off. (Blau, 2003). Problems which necessitated the Native American health policy There are many health care problems and challenges which face the people of Indian community. It is evident that American Indians suffer from the highest cases of illness and medical condition. One of the problems affecting American Indian communities is frequent changes in habit and behaviour arising from adjustment to modern American culture.
The American Indian children that are being raised in a community that is struggling to preserve its tradition while entering a modern society should be allowed to share in the benefits promised by the democratic tradition of the united states and the constitution. The children who are the future, represent the changing cycle of health problems, are not equally represented in the American health system. (Newman, 2006). References Blau, J. (2003). Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press, US. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2006).
Racism Without Racists. Rowman & Littlefield. Jolive’tte, A. (2006). Cultural Representation in Native America. Rowman Alltamia. Krinsky, C. H. (1996). Contemporary Native American Architecture. Oxford University Press. Lundquist, S. E. (2004). Native American Literature. Continuum International Publishing Group. Newman, M. D. (2006). Sociology. Pine Forge Press. Rosenthal, J. W. (2000). Handbook of Undergraduate second Language Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Rury, J. L. (2002). Education and Social Change. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.