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PLTW Intro to Engineering Final Study Guide Essay

Arbitration- The hearing and determination of a dispute or the settling of differences between parties by a person or persons chosen or agreed to by them. Asymmetry- Symmetry in which both halves of a composition are not identical. Also referred to as informal balance. Cabinet Pictorial- Oblique pictorial where depth is represented as half scale compared to the height and width scale. Cartesian Coordinate System- A rectangular coordinate system created by three mutually perpendicular coordinate axes, commonly labeled X, Y, and Z. Cavalier Pictorial- Oblique pictorial where height, width, and depth are represented at full scale. Center Line- A line which defines the center of arcs, circles, or symmetrical parts.

Centroid- A 3D point defining the geometric center of a solid. Circumscribe- 1. A triangle located round a polygon such as a circle. 2 To draw a figure around another, touching it at points but not cutting it. Construction Line- lightly drawn lines to guide drawing other lines and shapes.

Depth- The measurement associated with an object’s front-to-back dimension or extent of something from side to side. Dimension- A measurable extent, such as the three principal dimensions of an object is width, height, and depth. Ellipse- A regular oval shape, traced by a point moving in a plane so that the sum of its distances from two other points is constant, or resulting when a cone is cut by an oblique plane which does not intersect the base. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Ergonomics- the study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently. Extension Line- Line which represents where a dimension starts and stops. Fillet- A curve formed at the interior intersection between two or more surfaces Freehand – Sketching which is done manually without the aid of instruments such as rulers. Gestalt- The principle that maintains that the human eye sees objects in their entirety before perceiving their individual parts. Grid- A network of lines that cross each other to form a series of squares or rectangles. Hidden Line- A line type that represents an edge that is not directly visible. International Organization for Standardization (IOS)

Isometric Sketch- A form of pictorial sketch in which all three drawing axes form equal angles of 120 degrees with the plane of projection. Leader Line- Line which indicates dimensions of arcs, circles and detail Least Material Condition (LMC)

Line Conventions- Standardization of lines used on technical drawings by line weight and style. Line Weight- Also called line width. The thickness of a line, characterized as thick or thin Long Break Line- A line which indicates that a very long objects with uniform detail is drawn foreshortened. Mediation- The act or process of using an intermediary to effect an agreement or reconciliation Meniscus- The curved upper surface of a liquid column that is concave when the containing walls are wetted by the liquid and convex when not.

Norms- Principles of right action, binding upon the members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate proper and acceptable behavior. Object Line- A heavy solid line used on a drawing to represent the outline of an object. Oblique Sketch- A form of pictorial in which an object is represented as true width and height, but the depth can be any size and drawn at any angle. Orthographic Projection- A method of representing three-dimensional objects on a plane having only length and breadth. Also referred to as Right Angle Projection.

Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)- assure the safety and health of America’s workers Perspective Sketch- A form of pictorial sketch in which vanishing points are used to provide the depth and distortion that is seen with the human eye Pictorial Sketch- A sketch that shows an object’s height, width, and depth in a single view. Plane- A flat surface on which a straight line joining any two points would wholly lie. Point- A location in space Principal Axes- The lines of intersection created from three mutually perpendicular planes, with the three planes’ point of intersection at the centroid of the part. Profile- An outline of an object when viewed from one side.

Projection Line- An imaginary line that is used to locate or project the corners, edges, and features of a three-dimensional object onto an imaginary two-dimensional surface. Projection Plane- An imaginary surface between the object and the observer on which the view of the object is projected and drawn. Proportion- 1. The relationship of one thing to another in size, amount, etc. 2. Size or weight relationships among structures or among elements in a single structure. Scale- 1. A straight-edged strip of rigid material marked at regular intervals that is used to measure distances.

2. A proportion between two sets of dimensions used to develop accurate, larger or smaller prototypes, or models. Section Lines- Thin lines used in a section view to indicate where the cutting plane line has cut through material. Standard Deviation- The distance of a value in a population (or sample) from the mean value of the population (or sample). Technical Working Drawing- A drawing that is used to show the material, size, and shape of a product for manufacturing purposes. Tone- The general effect of color or of light and shade in a picture View- Colloquial term for views of an object projected onto two or more orthographic planes in a multi-view drawing.

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