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Plato Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Plato ethics

Every person does not do what he believes as to be the best, but however, there is an open door for a person to act on an appetitive attitude that conflicts with rational attitudes what is good. Some conflicting attitudes are dependent to different objects. This external conflict does not necessarily require an internal division of psychology attitudes (Irwin, 1999). The psychological theory of Plato is a bit complicating than the basic division that might be suggested by an individual. There are various types of appetite attitudes which may be appealing for a person; however, some may be unnecessary but lawful, while others unnecessary and uncontrollable. A part from these appetite attitudes, there are also five pure psychological constitutes. Theses…

Huxley, Plato Comparison on Education

In Plato’s Republic, Plato believed the state was responsible for the education of its citizens for the purpose of their individual enlightenment. Huxley, in his work Brave New World takes this part of Plato’s utopian society and perverts it in order to indoctrinate the citizens of his state. I will attempt to argue that Huxley uses education by the state to indoctrinate its citizens and ultimately undermine Plato’s theory on education by the state for individual enlightenment. The ways in which Huxley uses education to indoctrinate the individual are diverse. Music or rather hypnopaedic sound was used to indoctrinate the citizens while they slept (Kindle, Huxley, loc 385). Eugenics but more precisely the Bokanovsky Process is used along side with…

Platonic Love

In the Symposium, which is normally dated at the beginning of the middle period, Plato introduces his theory of love. First thing to note is that in Plato’s theory, love is given and its existence is not questioned. The word love leaves the matter ambiguous as to whether we are discussing love in the normal, human, sense of the word, or if we are discussing desire in a much broader sense, but in this discussion we are only considering only love of type eros, love as a kind of desire that exists between two human beings. Symposium, is a dialogue by Plato, about a dinner party in honor of the tragedian Agathon, after they have finished eating Phaedrus suggests that…

Critical Analysis of Plato’s the Good

Defining the Good according to Plato is not an easy undertaking. The best approach to understanding the Good is to first understand it as a Form, and then define Plato’s theory of Forms. From there is possible to gain insight of the Good as a Form and its theoretical implications, especially concerning ethics. According to Plato, everything in the visible world is that of a Form. Forms can be described as “the single unitary entity, the reality, of which its many instances would be the appearances” (Cross, 1964; Woozley, 1964). For example, Plato believed in the Form of Beauty. Many things the human eye sees are beautiful, but these are not the reality. They are only mere appearances. The true…

Plato’s Crito

To justify Socrates’ decision to stay in prison according to the law and obey even the unjust punishment that was given to him by his accusers or to escape from the prison is an issue that has been for debates for long. Socrates was sure to obey the law and accepted the punishment of drinking the poison. Here Plato wants to give the laws its own voice and discriminate it as a separate distinctiveness, trying to make it something close to human where it is believed that Socrates’ punishment is unjust. By going through the dialogues between Socrates and Crito, I disagree with Crito and believe that Socrates as right in abiding by the law and accepting the punishment of…

Plato’s the Republic

By the beginning of Book II of Plato’s The Republic, many questions have been brought upon the table involving the definition of justice. Polemarchus argues that justice is doing good to your friends and harm to your enemies. Thrasymachus argues that justice is the advantage of the stronger. Socrates finds flaws in both of these definitions, but discovers another important question about the nature of justice. Socrates wants to know whether the just life or the unjust life is better, or happier, but all arguments thus far have proved unsatisfactory. Book II aims to further outline this complicated question, and hopefully lead them closer to an answer. Glaucon isn’t satisfied by the previous explanations on the nature of justice and…

Comparing Plato’s The Myth of the Cave to Our Everyday Influences

Is it true that from the first day you were born until the day you die you are surrounded by false shadows-false shadows that are made by our peers in order to keep us from making our own decisions and realizations? According to “The Myth of the Cave” written by Plato, that is exactly how the world works. From my standing point I couldn’t agree more. Our society is constantly being manipulated. Whether it’s by false advertisements or somebody else’s behavior, society is constantly controlling the way we think. For example, television advertisement is telling our young and mature women they can be beautiful and near goddess like if they simply buy their company’s product. From what I’ve seen as…

Living a Virtues Life

In the book A World of Ideas by Lee A. Jacob, we come across a wise man Aristotle. He explains that there are two kinds of virtue: intellectual and moral. Our virtue is what makes us different. Intellectual virtues is what we are born with and what we learn in the world and it is our job as humans and what we have inherited that makes our desire to learn more powerful than ever before. We develop wisdom to help guide us to a good life and knowledge leads us to be successful. By reading Aristotle he has given me an insight to what life should be like and how one should life and I agree on some points he…

Plato’s 4 Virtues

In the Republic, Plato sets up a framework to help us establish what the four virtues are, and their relationship between them to both the city and the soul. According to Plato, the four virtues are wisdom, courage, moderation, and justice. There are three classes within the city: guardians, auxiliaries, and artisans; and three parts within the soul include intellect, high-spirited, and appetitive. By understanding the different classes of the city or parts of the soul, one will be able to appreciate how the virtues attribute to each one specifically. Book II of the Republic opens with Plato’s two brothers, both who want to know which is the better life to live: the just or the unjust. First, Socrates wants…

Plato&Socrates Excellence in Virtue

“Socrates’ positive influence touches us even today” (May 6) and we can learn a great deal about him from one of his students, Plato. It is in Plato’s report of Socrates’ trial a work entitled, Apology, and a friend’s visit to his jail cell while he is awaiting his death in Crito, that we discover a man like no other. Socrates was a man following a path he felt that the gods had wanted him to follow and made no excuses for his life and they way he lived it. The passage I have chosen from Plato’s Apology is the main passage to which Socrates believed in until his death and gave the basis for his life and they way…

Virtue: Ethics and Virtuous Life

Virtue is the key to a meaningful and happy life. According to ancient philosophers, Socrates and Aristotle, developing virtue is vital in order to lead a successful, fulfilling life. Though both men differ in their interpretations of a “good life,” they both agree that the supreme life is one of virtuous meaning. Each of the philosophers have devised and implemented their own definitions and guidelines to acquire and practice a virtuous disposition. While it is agreed that knowledge and practice are the key to virtuosity, the philosophers disagree on fundamental rules to follow. The inherent question to be explored concerns the idea of virtue; what is it and how does one acquire it? The answer is anything but simple, but…

Meno Virtue

Meno, an influential speaker, is traveling through Athens when he encounters Socrates. Meno is a well known individual who has spoken in front of large crowds the meaning of virtue. He is a student who studied under Gorgias, another well know teacher of virtue. Socrates provokes a discussion regarding virtue when he states that, “I have never known of anyone else who did [know virtue], in my judgment. ” This prompted Meno to stand up and prove to Socrates he could accurately define virtue. Through their conversation, Socrates challenges Meno and enlightens him to a new way of thinking. Proving that Meno knows what virtue is he provides Socrates with instances where virtue is portrayed. He says “there are virtues…

Truth in Management and Power Relationships

Throughout history, philosophers have come up with their versions of the actual definition for ‘truth’. The Greek philosopher Aristotle had explained truth as “To say of what is that it is not, or of what is not that it is, is false, while to say of what is that it is, and of what is not that it is not, is true” [1]. Aristotle explains that truth can be described as that something that is definite and distinct in its own form, nature or identity. Another Greek sophist and philosopher Protagoras held the view that “man is the measure of all things, of things that are that they are, and of things that are not that they are not”[2]. According…

Francis Bacon and Plato

The arguments presented by both Francis Bacon and Plato both call for different approaches in pursuing knowledge. In doing this, one must be accurately point out the important facets present in each argument and deduce what style is appropriate for an individual’s use. Looking at Francis Bacon’s arguments, it can be said that he is focused on the progression of ideas that will lead to the acquisition of knowledge. However, the ‘form’ that Bacon advocates differs to the original meaning proposed by Plato. He further advocates that the ‘form’ must be attained to gain knowledge. As long as man continues to strive for the form, knowledge will soon follow. On the other hand, Plato’s dialogue focuses on the way knowledge…

Critical Analysis of The Apology of Socrates by Plato

Socrates was an orator and philosopher whose primary interests were logic, ethics and epistemology. In Plato’s Apology of Socrates, Plato recounts the speech that Socrates gave shortly before his death, during the trial in 399 BC in which he was charged with “corrupting the young, and by not believing in the gods in whom the city believes, also being a busybody and intervene gods business”. The name of the work itself is not mean what it is appeared; here, Socrates is not apologizing, but merely speaking in defense of his beliefs and actions – the word apology is used in the context of its original meaning. During this apology, Socrates attempts to explain himself and the decisions that led to…

Political Philosophy

Introduction: Abu Nasr Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Tarkhan al-Farabi was born at Wasij, a village near Farab, a district of Transoxania. He was one of the greatest philosophers that the Muslim world had ever produced. He mainly studied in Baghdad and after gaining considerable proficiency in the Arabic language, he became an ardent pupil of the Christian savant Abu Bishr Matta bin Younus, quite prominent as translator of a number of works by Aristotle and other Greek versatile writers. Being a first Turkish philosopher, he left behind lasting and profound influence upon the life of succeeding Muslim Philosophers. Being a great expositor of Aristotle’s logic, he was aptly called al-mu’alim al thani (the second teacher). According to Ibn-e-Khaldoon, no Muslim…

Plato Republic the Noble Lie

As with all other topics discussed in “The Republic of Plato,” the section in which he discusses the myths of the metals or the “noble lie” is layered with questioning and potential symbolism, possible contradiction, and a significant measure of allusion. In Chapter X of “The Republic,” Plato presents “The Selection of Rulers: The Guardians’ Manner of Living. ” In it, he discusses the necessities of education as they apply to the appropriate selection of and reparation for the community’s leaders. As in other areas of “The Republic,” Plato carefully outlines the delineations which form the basis for the types of rulers to be installed in the state. “Rulers” (legislative and udicial), “Auxiliaries” (executive), and “Craftsmen” (productive and fficacious) are…

Reflection Paper on “The Republic” by Plato

Greek philosopher, Plato, is considered to be one of the most influential people in Western Philosophy. The fact that he was a student of Socrates and a teacher of Aristotle leaves no questions about his competence. One of his fundamental works is the “Republic”. Even though it was written in 380 BC, Plato’s and Socrates’s thoughts are still relevant in twenty first century. This paper will evaluate the quote from the “Republic” and provide a summary of a quote; provide a context from the text for the quote; and finally, it will include my own thoughts on the quote and the Socrates’s argument as a whole. The given quote is a paragraph from the fourth book of the “Republic”. It…

Plato’s Interpretation of Justice

We live in a society that has different perceptions of what the definition of society is and how its governance should be than those of past societies, which had existed several thousand years ago. For instance, individuals perceive social atmospheres and personal behavior in two different lights. What man does in his community as a loyal citizen should not reflect or influence how his life is lived as a person. These are the ideals of society now. However, when scholars, such as Homer, Plato, and Archimedes lived, they had envisioned a social order that exploited the attributes of its citizens. By doing so, the superiors would be able to categorize the citizens into a rigid “caste” system. Not only did…

The Life of Plato

Plato is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy and has had an impact on nearly every philosopher from all time periods. Alongside his mentor Socrates and his student Aristotle, Plato created some of the most significant works in philosophy; ultimately building the framework for western philosophic education. The dialogues of his works are wide ranging, from focuses on life and reality beyond what we see and hear, and subjects as practical rules, laws, education and punishment. Historians believe that Plato was born between 427 and 429 BC in Athens, Greece. Born in to an aristocratic family, Plato was involved in politics from an early age; however, he did not stay on the traditional political path for…

Plato, Symposium

Love or greek Eros, Philia was in the ancient Greece often theme to talk about between philosophers. Same as it is very spoken theme now so as it was a lot of years ago. This theme is very difficult to explain. Every one has different interpretation of it and think that it is the right one. Every one of us has its own definition of who is loved one and who is lover and how they should behave to each other. Love in according to the ancient Greeks has two different meanings. By this word they use to describe love between men and women as affectionate marital relationship and also pederastic love between older men and young boys. By reading…

Platos Republic

Socrates describes a perfect city in Plato’s The Republic. Many questions are asked in the book, such as “What is an ideal city? ” Or, “What is justice? ” And, “Is justice in the city possible? ” Socrates tries to find the real meaning of the word justice. He starts with justice within a single person, and then he tries to take that concept and apply it to the city. Then, to figure out the perfect city, he goes back to the single person to find justice there. He shows that the perfect city needs the people in it to be assigned to their place. People who play their role in the city must be people of justice for the…

Plato and Socrates

Classical Greece in the 4th and 5th centuries BC was a period in which some of history’s greatest philosophers lived. The relationship between Plato, and his mentor Socrates was, for Plato, one of reverence. Plato viewed his teacher as an inspiration and as a philosophical model to emulate. Plato was a student of Socrates. Plato is the main eye-witness source for the life of Socrates and we know from his account of Socrates’ trial that Plato was a student at the time. Socrates was on trial as a “corrupter of the youth (of Athens)”1 and as part of his defence he appeals to the suggestion of his students, of whom Plato was one. “Plato here…. tell(s) me to propose a…

Socrates – Philosophy

Plato was a well-known wrestler, and the name by which we know him today was his ring name. Plato means broad or flat: presumably in this case the former meaning, referring to his shoulder. At his birth in 429 B. C. Plato was given the name Aristocles. He was born in Athens, or on the island of Aegina, which lies just twelve miles offshores from Athens in the Saronic Gulf. Plato was born into one of the great political families of Athens. His father Ariston was descended from Codrus, the last kin Athens, and his mother was descended from the great Athenian lawmaker Solon (Sahakian, 1977). An eager student of philosophy under the guidance of Socrates. , Plato became thoroughthly…

Socrates – Philosophy

Plato – Plato WHEN Socrates was sixty years old, Plato, then a youth of twenty, came to him as a pupil. When Plato was sixty years old, the seventeen-year-old Aristotle presented himself, joining the Teacher’s group of “Friends,” as the members of the Academy called themselves. Aristotle was a youth of gentle birth and breeding, his father occupying the position of physician to King Philip of Macedon. Possessed of a strong character, a penetrating intellect, apparent sincerity, but great personal ambition…. [tags: Plato Philosophy Philosophers Essays] 3776 words (10.8 pages) $19. 95 [preview] Plato – Plato Plato was born to an aristocratic family in Athens, Greece. When he was a child his father, Ariston, who was believed to be descended…

Virtue – Ontology

Many people associate Plato with a few central doctrines that are advocated in his writings: The world that appears to our senses is in some way defective and filled with error, but there is a more real and perfect realm, populated by entities (called “forms” or “ideas”) that are eternal, changeless, and in some sense paradigmatic for the structure and character of the world presented to our senses. Among the most important of these abstract objects (as they are now called, because they are not located in space or time) are goodness, beauty, equality, bigness, likeness, unity, being, sameness, difference, change, and changelessness. (These terms—“goodness”, “beauty”, and so on—are often capitalized by those who write about Plato, in order to…

Philosophy – Justice

In most of the ancient world, strong fighters won all the glory. But in Athens, great thinkers and wise men were honored. People listened to them and followed their advice. Even today, people admire the ideas of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Their teachings are at the root of modern philosophy and science. Alfred Whitehead is quoted as saying: “The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. ” If you really know how to read Plato, the truth behind this statement is easy to see. Nearly every great philosophical idea was discussed by Plato to some extent. The best way to put it is the way the Stanford Encyclopedia…

We Are the World

In his extended metaphor, “The Allegory of the Cave,” Plato describes a conversation between his brother, Glaucon, and Socrates about the difficulty of understanding reality. Behind these prisoners are puppeteers who hold a puppet-show using the shadows of the fire behind them. The prisoners can only see the shadows casted by the puppeteers and they can only hear the sound of echoes from behind. For their whole lives, they are only accustomed to see these shadows in the shape of fake objects such as trees and animals. One of the prisoners is released from the chain and he experiences a whole new world that he has never encountered before. What he had thought was a tree was no longer the…

Athenian democracy

Due to experiencing the volatile state of the Athenian government, it is not surprising that Socrates had much to say on the topic of political philosophy. Central to his political theory was his position on how citizens ought to approach ethics and politics. In the Apology, Socrates’ conduct demonstrates his belief that citizens must not be complacent when it comes to political virtue. In order to push citizens out of complacency, Socrates used a method called the “elecnhus” to prod citizens to discover the true definition of virtues (Jowett, 2009). In doing this, Socrates hoped to promote a rigorous understanding of traditional moral virtues; an understanding of what courage, justice, and wisdom, truly meant (Jowett, 2009). At first glance, it…

The Irony of Socrates

Socrates was thought to be ahead of his time. At the time, the citizens of Athens believed that their government had the ultimate power and nothing could be higher. So of course when one person chose to believe another view, the government became a part of the situation to maintain a sense of peace thorough the nation. This didn’t sit well with Socrates. He wanted as many people to know about his knowledge as possible because he had found scientific reasoning as to why his way was true, rather than simply because government officials say it is. This strikes up multiple cases of irony from Socrates’s turn from natural philosophy to what eventually becomes what we know today as political…