1) Make a graph of resting heart rates from Activity 1. Provide a physiological explanation for fluctuations in resting heart rate over time. Discuss a couple of extrinsic factors that influence the autonomic nervous regulation of resting heart rate. The resting heart rate fluctuates over time because it is under control of the autonomic nervous system and the fluctuations are a result of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems trying to balance each other out. There are many reasons on why the resting heart rate can fluctuate over time. Factors can include things like the temperature of the room we were in, or what we ate/ drank for breakfast. Also volume of liquid or chemicals in the cell can impact the heart rate.
2) Is the average resting heart rate for the exercise and non-exercising group different? Provide a physiological explanation for why they are similar or different. In the data that our class collected, the average heart rates for the exercising and non-exercising groups are not that much different. They are actually pretty similar however; the non-exercising group’s range was much larger than the exercising group. Usually if you work out more, the lower your resting heart rate will be but in this case they were pretty similar. This could be because of the chemicals in our bodies, or maybe simply people in class don’t count their exercise or just simple errors.
3) Make a graph of exercise and recovery heart rates from Activity 2. Provide a physiological explanation for changes in heart rate from rest to exercise, as well as during recovery. Incorporate fundamental concepts of homeostasis in your answer. The obvious physiological change that happens when you begin to exercise is the heart rate increases. The more energy and oxygen you use, the harder your heart works to pump the necessary nutrients and release the CO2. When you go from rest to exercise, the increase in heart rate is dramatic then it plateaus. During recovery however it is a slower decrease. No matter what stage its in, it will be oscillating over time. The effect of exercise on homeostasis is also very prevalent. Homeostatic is all about balance so when you begin to exercise, you need more oxygen. The harder you breathe the more energy it takes to replace it. Your body temperature while exercising also increases; typically it creates too much heat so your body has to figure out a way to release the heat so it doesn’t become dangerous. This is done by sweating
4) Compare and contrast oscillations in heart rate observed at rest (Activity 1), during exercise and recovery exercise (Activity 2). Is the relative magnitude of the oscillations the same? Provide a physiological explanation in your answer. In the first experiment I was subject 2. For the most part my heart rate did not oscillate too much. My heart rate was a little slower than the other subjects as well. Compared to Activity 2, his oscillations while exercising were a little more dramatic. The reason for this could be that your heart is trying to adjust to the new physically taxing activity that you are enduring. Your body is trying to balance, but if it is thrown into a demanding activity it will take a little bit more adjusting than if you are just resting. 5) Describe how the normal range for any given measurement is obtained.
Explain why published values for normal ranges may differ and why these values must be continually checked and updated. There really is no “ideal” reading for any measurement, it really just varies depending on your diet (when and what you ate) and physical activity. If the numbers are too high or too low, that is when you know something is not normal and most likely negative symptoms will follow with those numbers. The published numbers may differ because as stated above there isn’t a set or certain number of the measurements – it can vary from person to person. The numbers have to be checked constantly and updated because the numbers can change rapidly even without a person knowing it. Their lifestyle or habits may change causing the readings to change as well.