Individual:? single?? separate.? ? Existentialism:? a? philosophical? theory? or? approach? that? emphasizes? the? existence? of? the? individual? person? as? a? free? and? responsible? agent? determining? their? own? development? through? acts? of? the? will.? ? Consequentialism:? the? doctrine? that? the? morality? of? an? action? is? to? be? judged? solely? by? its? consequences.? ? Nihilism:? the? rejection? of? all? religious? and? moral? principles,? often? in? the? belief? that? life? is? meaningless.? ? Absurdity:? the? quality? or? state? of? being? ridiculous? or? wildly? unreasonable.?
? Hedonism:? the? pursuit? of? pleasure?? sensual? self? indulgence.? ? Objectivism:? the? belief? that? certain? things,? especially? moral? truths,? exist? independently? of? human? knowledge? or? perception? of? them.? ? Individualism:? the? habit? or? principle? of? being? independent? and? self? reliant.? ? Determinism:? the? doctrine? that? all? events,? including? human? action,? are? ultimately? determined? by? causes? external? to? the? will.? Some? philosophers? have? taken? determinism? to? imply? that? individual? human? beings? have? no? free? will? and? cannot? be? held? morally?
responsible? for? their? actions.? ? Society:? the? aggregate? of? people? living? together? in? a? more? or? less? ordered? community.? ? Oppression:? prolonged? cruel? or? unjust? treatment? or? control.? ? Altruism:? the? belief? in? or? practice? of? disinterested? and? selfless? concern? for? the? well? being? of? others.? ? Utilitarianism:? the? doctrine? that? actions? are? right? if? they? are? useful? or? for? the? benefit? of? a? majority.? ? Biopower:? is? a? term? coined? by? French? scholar,? historian,? and? social? theorist? Michel? Foucault.? It? relates? to? the? practice? of?
modern? nation? states? and? their? regulation? of? their? subjects? through? “an? explosion? of? numerous? and? diverse? techniques? for? achieving? the? subjugations? of? bodies? and? the? control? of? populations”.? ? Totalitarianism:? state? is? a? concept? used? by? some? political? scientists? in? which? the? state? holds? total? authority? over? the? society? and? seeks? to? control? all? aspects? of? public? and? private? life? wherever? possible.? ?
Reciprocity:? the? practice? of? exchanging? things? with? others? for? mutual? benefit,? especially? privileges? granted? by? one? country?or? organization? to? another.? ? Socialism:? a? political? and? economic? theory? of? social? organization? that? advocates? that? the? means? of? production,? distribution,? and? exchange? should? be? owned? or? regulated? by? the? community? as? a? whole.? ? Communism:? a? political? theory? derived? from? Karl?
Marx,? advocating? class? war? and? leading? to? a? society? in? which? all? property? is? publicly? owned? and? each? person? works? and? is? paid? according? to? their? abilities? and? needs.? ? Capitalism:? an? economic? and? political? system? in? which? a? country’s? trade? and?
industry? are? controlled? by? private? owners? for? profit,? rather? than? by? the? state? ? Neoliberalism:? the? resurgence? of? ideas? associated? with? laissez? faire? economic? liberalism? beginning? in? the? 1970s? and? 1980s,? whose? advocates? support? extensive? economic? liberalization,? free? trade,? and? reductions? in? government? spending? in? order? to? enhance? the? role? of? the? private? sector? in? the? economy.? ?
Neoconservatism:? relating? to? or? denoting? a? return? to? a? modified? form? of? a? traditional? viewpoint,? in? particular? a? political? ideology? characterized? by? an? emphasis? on? free? market? capitalism? and? an? interventionist? foreign? policy.? ? Anthropocentrism:? the? belief? that? human? beings? are? the? central? or? most? significant? species? on? the? planet,? or? the? assessment? of? reality? through? an? exclusively? human? perspective.? ? Utopianism:? an? imagined? place? or? state? of? things? in? which? everything? is? perfect.? The? word? was? first? used? in? the? book? Utopia? (1516)? by? Sir?
Thomas? More.? ? Deontology:? the? study? of? the? nature? of? duty? and? obligation.? ?? Ontology:? the? branch? of? metaphysics? dealing?with? the? nature? of? being.? ? Epistemology:? the? theory? of? knowledge,? especially? with? regard? to? its? methods,? validity,? and? scope.?
Epistemology? is? the? investigation? of? what? distinguishes? justified? belief? from? opinion.? View as multi-pages TOPICS IN THIS DOCUMENT Epistemology, Philosophy, Truth, Capitalism, Karl Marx, Classical liberalism, Communism, Political philosophy RELATED DOCUMENTS A Closer Look on the Effects of Reading to the Vocabulary Range of Readers and Non-Readers … words. These words are called vocabulary words. Reading helps people improve their word range.
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