> Principle of non- indefinite Regression everything has an end (Teleoloqy) > Nemo dat quod non habet nobody can give what it does not possess > nature is never frustrated intellect is destined to know > tota anima in toto corpore the whole soul is in the whole body > ex entre non fit ens nothing becomes what is already is > the effect cannot be greater than the cause > nothing is in the intellect which does not pass through the senses > the separated soul can no longer use abstract concepts to remember or to reason Midieval Philosophy.
> The problem on which philosophy became stranded – (the existence and nature of God and his relationship with the world. ) > The spirituality and immortality of the soul, the notion of the obligation and of moral sanction – are given clear responses in Christian revelation. > The problems of reconciling these two sources arouse (faith and reason). Some of these men are: 1. St. Augustine > he wrote about 232 books in which are contained Philosophical definitions which testify to the depth and universality of his genius. > his philosophy are more or less adhered to that of Plato which, to him, seemed the most suitable for Christianity.
> Fundamental Principles The Divine Truth is the unique and perfect cost which is immediately explicative of all beings in its different modalities of nature and of action. Augustine establishes the existence of God, the source of all truth, through philosophical truths. 2. St Anselm and Peter Abelard For St. Anselm: Famous Formula: “Credo ut intellicam: I believe that I may have a full understanding. ” God means the most perfect being that can be thought of. Therefore, God must exist, otherwise he would not be the most perfect conceivable being. For Peter Abelard:
Abelard was a brilliant master of dialectics and ethics. He stress fully the value of human reason in investigating the divine or revealed truth. 3. St. Albert the Great Albert began Aristotle’s Christianization. Albert performed a twofold function of revealing the greatness of Aristotle. 4. St. Thomas Aquinas Thomistic philosophy (Thomism) is fundamentally, the philosophy of good sense. It is both Universal and Catholic. Lacordaire stated that Thomas was a lighthouse and not a milestone. He acheived the title of Angelic Doctor and named as Guide of Students.
In him, there is not found thelhowght of man alone but the voice of the truth common to all men, and the most beautiful reflection of the Uncreated Light of the word God, who enlightens every man coming into this world. Five ways to prove the existence of God: 1. Argument of Motion God is the Prime Mover. 2. Argument from Efficient Causes God is the uncaused cause. 3. Argument from Possibility and Necessity (Reductio Argument) God is the alpha and omega. 4. Argument of Gradation of Being God as the supreme being. 5. Argument of Design God designed everything. MODERN PHILOSOPHY.
Modern thinkers want to use pure reason in their investigations. Between there is an intercovering period called RENAISSANCE (16th C. ) This period was marked by the rise of many philosophers each claiming to by the right philosophy (individualism). This was critisim among philosophers. Renaissance brought top light a new science and also renewed interest in the arts and letters. In the 17th century, the philosophical field was almost free and this fact explains tge rapid advance of ideas of FRANCIS BACON and of Rene Descartes, the initiators of Modern Philosophy.
FRANCIS BACON – father of modern philosophy (empiricists). Empiricists rely on scientific method to determine the truth. He employed the inductive method. He rejects the deduction and syllogistoc reasoning as an unscientific method and affirms induction as the only useful instrument for the philosophers. RENE DESCSRTES – another father of modern philosiphy (rationalist). Rationalists use reason to determine the truth. He tries to establish a method for philosophers to discover the truth. Four Stages: 1. Adoption of Universal Doubt.
Doubt about everything. 2. Cogbito erg Sum Cannot doubt self existence. 3. Clear Ideas of d’ Supreme Interior Thinking must be certain. 4. Establishment of Rules of the Universal Method Four rules of universal method necessary in construction a universal science. IMMANUEL KANT – an empiricists. He accepts that human reason cannot know reality because it is NOUMENON. Kant abandons empiricism in favor of rationalism. Philosophy and ethics is the central part of his philosophy. He also believes in the Categorical Imperitive. CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY.
It is believed that contemporary philosophy appeared as a direct, indirect or concomitant reaction against idealism. Important Philosiphical Systems in the Contemporary Age: 1. Voluntarism If there’s a will, there’s a way. 2. Radical Christian Fideism To acheive faith 3. Institution There are certain things that are vital to the society. 4. Phenomenology Dwell on certain processes to arrive at a reality. 5. Extentialism pose many reflections sysipus means existential philosophy 6. Materialism 7. Positivism 8. Structuralism SOREN KIERKEGARD – an existentialist. He believed in the leap of faith.
The authentic existing individual is a “Christiana”. FRIEDRICH NEITZCHE – an atheists. Neitzche’s philosophy is born out the will to live. The religious ideal is unacceptable because “God is dead. ” God’s death gives way to rise of the Superman who is not subject to the ordinary laws of morality because he creates his own values. He says atheism is the only alternative to the death of God. EDMUND HUSSERL – father of phenomenology. Three steps of the phenomenology method: 1. Epoche 2. Eidetic Reduction 3. Transcendental Reduction Eidos is the center of being in everything.