Fundamentally the term philosophy is the study of different natural phenomena that exists like knowledge, truth, beauty, justice, validity, mind, numerous languages. Anthony Quinton a well known author of his time declared it as thinking about thinking.
It is quite dissimilar than mysticism or mythology that are also ways of addressing numerous dissimilar questions. This term has a particular definite meaning as this word is an origin from ancient Greek times and it means ‘Love of wisdom‘. In addition with this it is also segmented into numerous different branches like Metaphysics, Epistemology, Political Philosophy, Logic, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of language and several more
This branch of philosophy is fundamentally used to study the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain. Several well known scientists work on this segment of philosophy and gave there numerous theories as well as applications on this but still the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind. It was also explored that there are other issues too regarding relations with physical body that have to be resolved.
According to research it was discovered that chronological mapping of the brain was the initial attempt, which correlates mental functionalities with different segments of brain.
Many of us have a thought that the main defining characteristic of a person is either the person has consciousness, mind or soul. Not only this it was also a fact that almost all of us exactly know consciousness, but still there are several problem regarding this as having awareness of consciousness is not the end until we know what consciousness is.
Several philosophers gave their thoughts and works in this field to resolve all issues of philosophy of mind. In 427 BC Plato one of the well-known and prominent philosopher of his time share his though and declare the fact that fundamentally what we are is our real soul, and that our real soul will survive after death, and after our death this soul will be release form our body.
Similarly in 384BC Aristotle reveal the fact that soul and body are basically related with each other, in addition with this he also explore the point that our soul is not a part of other substance but it is directly related with our body as or material substance, of which the body is made. Beside this Aristotle once said, If an axe had a soul, its soul would be cutting.
Furthermore in year 1825 T.H. Huxley gave his views regarding philosophy of mind. As according to him our mind is a product of brain. Not only this he also gave samples to prove his words as he states” if I think that I want some chocolate, this may be because my stomach is sending messages to the brain because my blood sugar level is low”. In addition with this he also explore that this term consciousness didn’t have any sort of power to cause anything, all such situations are reflection of biology as according to him till the time body is alive and is in working position but when body dies, mind will stop its functionalities and dies with it.
Several philosopher work in this particular area to resolve mind-body problem, they define the fact that through which techniques and approaches a supposedly non-material mind can influence a material body and vice-versa. Besides philosopher also concerned this particular point that how someone’s propositional attitudes could become the result of that individual’s neurons to fire not only this how his muscles also contract in exactly the accurate behavior as well. “The diversity of our opinions does not arise from the fact that some people are more reasonable than others, but solely from the fact that we we lead our thoughts along different paths and do not take the same things in consideration.”
To resolve above mentioned issues Dualism and monism are explored and declared as the significant thoughts to resolve all such problems of mind and body. Dualism if basically defined as a position in which both mind and body lie down in some categorical way which would separate them from each other. Not only this Dualism is also segmented into three parts as well.
Similarly Monism is also a declared as a particular stage where both mind and body are not ontologically distinct kinds of entities. Furthermore many other related things are also completed and different techniques are also designed by philosopher to solve all such issues of mind and body. As the father of modern philosophy Descartes in year 1596 uses his famous writing “method of doubt” to explain the fact that he has no doubt on the existence of his mind.
After Descartes master piece writing various more photosphere also contributes in this field and still many of the issues of mind-body problem are not resolved, and these philosopher are looking forward to solve all such issues and gave a clear concept of how this part of body actually works and what is the fundamental relationship of mind and body.
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