Determinism is philosophical proposition that human action is caused entirely by the preceding events but not by the exercise of the will (Guldmann, 2006). This theory posits that every event is as result of preceding events that was induced by still an earlier event and so on. Because man is part of this causal chain, his actions are also determined by prior causes some of which are environment while others are due to genetic make up (Haji, 2003). As such, these are so determinative of what man does in a way that a given action would not have been done otherwise than what has been done.
Therefore, self-determinism supports that every present state or condition of the self is due to the result of the previous states or conditions of self (Buchanan, 2004). Social work interventions do integrate person-focused psychological process besides other systems. To able to integrate person focused psychological processes, different psychological theories are used. Application of these theories helps to identify the problems and existing needs (Dupper, 2002) . One of the psychological theories used in social work interventions is Object relations theory.
This theory explains the dynamic process of mind development and how an individual grows in relation to others in the environment. The term ‘object’ refers to both real and internalized images of others. This theory maintains that object relationships are first formed in time during interactions with the primary care. So early infant caretaker interactions lead to the person internalizing basic attitudes towards self and about others and develop characteristic relational patterns (Goldstein, 2002). Development processes here include attachment, experiences with frustration or bad objects and the move from being dependant to independent.
Underlying problems with object relation pathology are attachment style narcissistic, severe and chronic depression among others. Treatment requires modification of pathological internal structures or creates facilitative and reparative experiences which new and stronger structures are acquired (Bower, 2005). Another psychological theory used is self psychology theory. It postulates that infants are born with innate abilities of self development but require the responsive of the caretaking environment for them to be strong and cohesive (Donna & Romano, 2004).
In ideal situation, there need to be experiences validation, affirmation, sense of feeling others and forms of empathetic self object responsiveness from caretakers. If self structure is weak or vulnerable, self concept and self esteem become impaired. Treatment aims at creating strong self structures, greater self cohesion and self esteem regulation and enabling increased self actualization and life enjoyment. Object relations theory and self psychology concepts are used in situation such as life crises, transitions, in effects of physical and sexual abuse and work issues to mention but a few (http://www.
simonsays. com/content/book. cfm? pid=408116&tab=1&agid=2). The third psychological theory used in social work practice is Sigmund Freud theory-ego psychology. He suggests that an individual interact with external world and also respond to internal forces. The ability of ego to distinguish what is happening in one’s mind from what is occurring in the external world is probable the most important function of ego. Besides this it is responsible for impulse control, affect regulation, judgment, thought processes, synthesis, defensive functioning and object relations (Bjorklund, 2000).
All of these three theories comprise contemporary psychodynamic basis for the social work practice. Therefore, as argued in determinism and self determinism propositions that human actions are guided by antecedent events that, self psychology, object relations and ego psychology theories seem to concur with this. However, these theories take different perspectives and set up to convey the same idea. Bibliography: Bower, M. (2005): Psychoanalytic Theory for Social Work Practice: Thinking under Fire. ISBN 041533800X, 9780415338004, Routledge Buchanan, A. E. (2004): Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-determination:
Moral Foundations for International Law. ISBN 0198295359, 9780198295358, Oxford University Press. Bjorklund, P. (2000): Assessing Ego Strength: Spinning Straw into Gold. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Journal, Vol. 36. Donna, M. Romano, C. (2004): A Self-Psychology Approach to Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Nursing Reflection . Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Journal. Dupper, D. (2002): School Social Work: Skills and Interventions for Effective Practice. ISBN 0471271128, 9780471271123, John Wiley and Sons.
Goldstein, E. G. (2002): Object Relations Theory and Self Psychology in Social Work Practice. ISBN 068484009X, 9780684840093, Free Press. Guldmann, R. (2006): Determinism and Forbearance . Social Theory and Practice Journal, Vol. 32. Haji, I. (2003): Determinism and Its Threat to the Moral Sentiments. The Monist Journal, Vol. 86. Historical, Theoretical, and Clinical Perspectives: Object Relations Theory and Self Psychology, (2001). Retrieved on 22nd December 2008 from: http://www. simonsays. com/content/book. cfm? pid=408116&tab=1&agid=2.