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Philosophical Movement that Shaped Philippine Education Essay

Pre-colonial period

During the pre-colonial period, education was still decentralized. Children were provided with more vocational training but fewer academics. Philippine schools were headed by parents or by their tribal tutors. They employed a unique writing system known as baybayin.

Spanish Period

When the Spanish first arrived in Manila, they were surprised to find a population with a literacy rate higher than that of Madrid. During the early Spanish period, most education was conducted by religious orders. The church and the school both worked together. All Christian villages had schools for students to attend. Spanish missionaries established schools immediately after reaching the islands. There was a separate school for boys and girls. The wealthy Filipinos or the Ilustrados were accommodated in the school. The Educational Decree of 1863 created a free public education system in the Philippines, run by the government. It was the first such education system in Asia.

First Republic

The Malolos Republic: Also called The First Philippine Republic Because of the destruction of many schools and to the peace and order condition, all the schools were closed for the time being. Aguinaldo decreed that all diplomas awarded by UST after 1898 be considered null and void Article 23 of the Malolos Constitution mandated that public education would be free and obligatory in all schools of the nation under the First Philippine Republic Aguinaldo included an item for public instruction amounting P35, 000 in the budget for 1899. August 29, 1898, the Secretary of the Interior ordered the provincial governors to reestablish the schools that had been abandoned before.

American Period

American Expeditionary forces were sent to Philippines with a mission to destroy the Spanish Armanda in Manila Bay as part of the strategy to defeat the Spaniards in the Spanish-American War ranging at that time in Cuba. Americans won, and on the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898, the Philippines was ceded to the United State by the Spanish for the paltry sum of US $20 Million. 1898, American occupied Manila. Reopened schools where in the American Soldiers were the first teachers.

Education should be universal and free for all regardless of sex, age, religion and socio-economic status of the individual. Act No. 74, established the public primary school in 1901 and intermediate school in 1904 which provides free public education. Thomasites – group of professionals sent by the United State Government who where assigned to teach English language. Act No. 372, required all provinces to maintain a provincial high school. 1901 – Philippine Normal School was founded to train teachers. 1908 – University of the Philippines was established.

Education was the means of giving people and orientation towards a democratic way of life.

Japanese Period
1941- the Pacific War broke out and the Philippines came under the Japanese occupation. Department of Education, Health and Public Welfare – its function is to reopen schools and to make reports to the Japanese Administration. Military order no. 2 in 1942 – Japanese educational policies were embodied in the Military Order No. 2. The Philippines Executive Commission established. Schools were reopened in June 1942 with 300,000 students.

Third Republic

During the period from the proclamation of the Third Philippine Republic on July 4, 1946, under the administration of President Manuel Roxas until the pre-martial law days of the Marcos regime, the country’s educational philosophy was in accordance with the provisions of Article XIV, section 5 of the 1935 Constitution which provides that: all educational institution is under the supervision of and subject to regulation of the State

the government shall provide at least free primary instruction and citizenship training to adults.

the educational aims are to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic consciousness, and vocational efficiency and teach the duties of citizenship

religious education is optional

Universities enjoy academic freedom
the State shall create scholarships for gifted citizens.

Fourth Republic
n 1972, the Department of Education became the Department of Education and Culture by the virtue of Proclamation 1081 which was signed by President Ferdinand Marcos. on January 17, 1973, President Marcos ratified the 1973 Constitution by Proclamation 1102. The 1973 Constitution set out the three fundamental aims of education in the Philippines, to: ◦Foster love of country;

◦teach the duties of citizenship; and
◦develop moral character, self-discipline, and scientific, technological and vocational efficiency. On September 24, 1972, by Presidential Decree No. 1, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports was decentralized with decision-making shared among thirteen regional offices. In 1978, by the Presidential Decree No. 1397, the Department of Education and Culture became the Ministry of Education and Culture. The Education Act of 1982 provided for an integrated system of education covering both formal and non-formal education at all levels. Section 16 and Section 17 upgraded the obligations and qualifications required for teachers and administrators; while Section 41 provided for government financial assistance to private schools. This act also created the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports.

Fifth Republic

On February 2, 1987, a new Constitution for the Philippines was ratified. Section 3, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution contains the ten fundamental aims of education in the Philippines. It is also seen that under the 1987 Constitution, only elementary school is compulsory. In 1987 by virtue of Executive Order No. 117, the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, became the Department of Education, Culture and Sports. The structure of DECS as embodied in the order remained practically unchanged until 1994. On May 26, 1988, the Congress of the Philippines enacted the Republic Act 6655, the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988, which mandated free public secondary education commencing in the school year 1988–1989.

On February 3, 1992, the Congress enacted Republic Act 7323, which provided that students aged 15 to 25 may be employed during Christmas and summer vacation with a salary not lower than the minimum wage. 60% of the wage is to be paid by the employer and 40% is by the government. On May 18, 1994, the Congress passed Republic Act 7722, the Higher Education Act of 1994, creating the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), which assumed the functions of the Bureau of Higher Education, and supervises tertiary degree programs.

On August 25, 1994, the Congress passed Republic Act 7796, the Technical Education and Skills Development Act of 1994, creating the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority(TESDA) 2000s and K-12 Program

In August 2001, Republic Act 9155, otherwise called the Governance of Basic Education Act, was passed transforming the name of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) The goal of basic education is to provide the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens. 2010s and the K-12 Program

The start of this century’s second decade saw a major improvement in the Philippine education system. In 2011, DepEd started to implement the new K-12 educational system, which includes the new curricula for all schools. In this system, education is now compulsory. The implementation of the K-12 program is “phased”. The K-12 Program means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education, which is part of the Educational Program of President Benigno Simeon “Noynoy” C. Aquino III.

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