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Philippine’s Indigenous Games Essay

Regulations of Luksong Tinik (Jump over thorns)

1. Players : Usually 3 or more Players.
2. Setting : a grassy field with lots of space to run and tumble.
3. Equipment : Grassy field
4. Pre-game :
* Assign two players to serve as the base of the tinik (thorn) by putting their right or left feet together (soles touching gradually building the tinik). * Set a starting point giving enough runway for the players to achieve a higher jump, so as not to hit the tinik. * Assign teams who will jump on the tinik first.

* A toss coin or Jack-en-poy by the two leaders determines who plays first.


First children decide among themselves who will play first and who will be the two who will act as the “thorns” in the game. Thorns have a very important as well as difficult task in the game. Jumpers take turns passing the levels. The jumpers form a queue and the thorns take their position.

The “thorns” (A & B) sit, facing each other with the soles of their feet touching. This is the first level that jumpers must successfully jump through without touching any of their body parts with those of the thorns’ body parts.

Next level the two thorns must adjust their distance a bit towards each other so they can comfortably and successfully create level 2, where one of “thorn A’s” foot is used as base, and another of “thorn B’s” foot as the second level above the base.

Then it is thorn A’s foot as base, thorn B’s foot as second layer of base then thorn A’s other foot as 3rd level.

Then is both A and B’s feet alternating to create level 4. Then it is all four feet plus thorn A’s hand: Level 5. A & B’s feet and one hand each: Level 6. A& B’s feet and two of A’s hands and B’s one hand: Level 7. Finally Level 8 has all four hands and feet alternating.

Successful jumpers are cleared and pass on to the next level. The group decides how many tries will be given for each attempt. For example, you get one more try. So if you were unsuccessful the first attempt, you step aside and wait till everyone has their turn jumping over the “thorns”.

After this, all the unsuccessful ones take their second attempt. If you still did not clear that level, you are out of the game and spend the remaining time watching the rest of the kids complete all the rounds. Then you are candidate for the thorns so that the thorns of the current game can take their turn as jumpers in the next game.

History and Description of Luksong Tinik

Pinoy Games: Luksong Tinik
Participants: Three or more
The name of the game was derived from how the game is played.

Two teams with an equal number of players elect their respective leaders; the one who can jump the highest is usually appointed by the members as their leader, who is then called the “mother.”

A toss coin or Jack-en-poy by the two leaders determines who plays first. Two players serve as the base of the tinik (thorn) by putting their right or left feet together (soles touching gradually building the tinik). A starting point is set by all the players, giving enough runway for the players to achieve a higher jump, so as not to hit the tinik. Players of the other team start jumping over the tinik, followed by the other team members.

If they all successfully jump without touching any of the feet of the base players, the game is advanced to the next degree of difficulty. The base players extend their right or left hands one on top of the other (fingers spread apart to symbolize thorns). The other team continues the same jumping process until the base players have used all their feet and hands or as long as none of the jumping team members’ clothes, foot or any part of the body touches the tinik. Should this happen, the jumping team’s mother gets to jump to redeem the player who failed in the earlier jump. If the leader fails that jump, the teams exchange places and the game starts anew. “PIKO”

Regulations of Luksong Tinik (Jump over thorns)
1. Players : can be played alone or with other people
2. Setting : soil , ground, etc. ( anywhere that has enough space to draw boxes)
3. Equipment : Charcoal / Chalk (ground) , stick (soil) , marker (puck) 4. Pre-game :
* Createboxes that is either 8 ,10,12 and their steps (whether 1 or 2) may vary. * Determine the first one to throw depending on the players’ agreement (e.g. nearest to the moon, wings or chest).

To begin, create boxes that should look like this, numbered 1 to 10.

Then find a puck – could be a smooth stone or a rounded tile that you can use as your marker. Each player has their own individual markers or pucks. Nice stones, a smoothened terra cotta or piece from a broken pottery, it has to be heavy enough to stay when thrown but flat enough to get the right balance so you can throw it easily to where you want it to land (onto which box and/or number).

You begin with the puck at number one. If your puck is in box 1, you skip that box and jump to box number two using only one leg. You can only land with both feet in each box at numbers 4 and 5 and also on numbers 8 and 9. When you reach box ten, you can pivot so you can skip back down to box number 2, thne you pick up your puck by bending and keeping one leg up and jump out of the boxes on both feet.

Now you throw your puck and make sure it lands on box 2. Start with one foot in box 1, skip box 2 where your puck is, using the same leg, land your foot on box 3 and continue up to box 10. Pivot and go back down, at box 3, bend to pick up your puck on box 2, since box 2 is empty, you can now jump into it down to box 1 and out of the boxes.

Players take turns throwing their pucks starting at number 1. If you didn’t throw your puck on the correct box, you miss your turn and will have a chance after all the other players have finished their turns.

What do you learn?

From this game, you learn the early counting, balance and how to aim for something using your hands, arms and fingers. You gauge the weight of your puck and throw it with just the right force. You learn to strengthen your knees as you put your weight on one leg and bend down to retrieve your puck. You also learn patience as you wait for your turn.

Other Variations
Aside from this, a variation is once you reach 10 – your puck is on the 10th box/space – you pick it up and land on both feet at box 10. Then without looking, you throw your puck making sure it lands inside the square of a numbered box (not on the lines). Then you pivot and skip and retrieve your puck in the usual way and finish skipping down to box 1.

History/ Description of Piko

Piko is the Philippine variation of the game hopscotch. The players stand behind the edge of a box, and each should throw their cue ball. The first to play is determined depending on the players’ agreement (e.g. nearest to the moon, wings or chest). Whoever succeeds in throwing the cue ball nearest to the place that they have agreed upon will play first. The next nearest is second, and so on.


Regulations of Agawan Base (Stealing Bases)
1. Players : minimum of 4, two in each team (more players for more fun recommended) Minimum age: 5 years Old
2. Setting : anywhere with great space
3. Equipment : markers to be used as the base, 2 pcs. (you can use two trees or two slippers or two chairs as your bases)
4. Pre-game :
* Assign 1 person to guard each base from their teams


There are two bases, each base has equal number of members. There will be one person assigned to guard the base. The others may leave the base to run and try to catch another member of the other team or to try to steal the opponent’s base. If you touch the base of your opponent first, before members of that team tag you, you steal their base and your team wins. Another main goal is to catch as many of the opponents as your team can. A captive opponent becomes a prisoner and stands on the captor’s base until a member of his own team saves him by touching/tagging him. Once he is tagged and “saved”, the prisoner is freed and goes back to his base.

The game can be as small-scale as teams just facing each other and trying to tap the opponents to catch them or as large as team members hiding and strategizing whom to catch first – for example, the weakest links or the slowest runners. If there are no more members at large, meaning all opponents have been captured, all members of the stronger team will have to try and get the base from the “guard” by tagging it. The one left must try not to leave the base lest it be overtaken by the opponents. In this case, the stronger team wins.

What do you learn from this game?

1. Speed and agility, not getting caught by the other group.
2. Loyalty, save the captured members of your group; no one gets left behind
3. Tenacity, if at first you don’t succeed…try and try again
4. Sportsmanship, win or lose you accept both with good humour, at least everyone had a lot of fun!

History/ Description of Agawan Base

There are two teams with two bases. How many players on each team depends on the players. There are two bases which each team claims as their own. The goal is to tag the other team’s base without getting tagged. If you’re tagged, you’re transferred to the other team and must be rescued. There are several variations in which the rules are changed, in some, you can connect other items on the base so you can easily touch the base. There are usually set points, such as first team to tag the other team 5 times wins. You can tag other people who has touched their base before you and are on the opposite team. If they’ve touched their base after you’ve touched your base, they can tag you, and you can’t tag them.

The participants are divided into two teams with equal number of members. The objective of the game is for one team to try and capture the base of the other by reaching the other’s home base first and tagging a pre-decided item (e.g. a tree trunk, a rock, etc.) symbolizing the opposite team’s home base without getting tagged by the defending members of the opposite team. A safety line is drawn between the two teams.

A member of an opposing team who crosses the safety line into the territory of the other team can be chased and tagged by the team that owns that base. If the attacker gets tagged before he or she manages to get back to his or her safety zone or home base, he or she becomes a prisoner of the opposite team. He or she can be rescued by a teammate when tagged without the teammate getting tagged by the guard or one of the defenders of the opposing team.

The game ends when a member of an opposing team manages to tag the symbol of the other team or when all the members of one team are captured by the other team, leaving their home base free for the opposite team to attack and capture.


Regulations of Sepak Takraw(Sipa)
1. Players : A match is played by two regus (teams), each consisting of three players. One of the three players shall be at the back; he is called a “Tekong”. The other two players shall be in front, one on the left and the other on the right. The player on the left is called a “Left Inside” and the player on the right is called a “Right Inside”. 2. Setting: Played on a similar court to doubles badminton, with the server serving in the middle of the back half of the court.

3. Equipment : Rattan ball

4. Pre-game :
a) The side that must serve first shall start the first set. The side that wins the first set shall have the options of “Choosing Service”. b) The throw must be executed as soon as the referee calls the score. If either of the “Inside” players throws the ball before the referee calls the score, it must be re-thrown and a warning will be given to the thrower. c) During the service, as soon as the Tekong kicks the ball, all the players are allowed to move about freely in their respective courts. d) The service is valid if the ball passes over the net, whether it touches the net or not, and inside the boundary of the two net tapes and boundary lines of the opponent’s court.

Movements of Sepak Takraw

When playing alone, each kick scores one point. A very good player can keep the ball up in the air beyond one hundred counts in one try. When sipa is played either by singles or doubles, it resembles volleyball, without the use of hands. It is sometimes played by two teams on a court strung with a net. The ball is kicked or sent across the net by any part of the body except the hands and arms.

To be considered “official” the court must measure 20 meters long and 8 meters wide for doubles and 20 meters long and 6 meters wide for singles. The top of the net must be level and be 1 1/2 meters from the ground.

Just like ping pong, the scoring is up to 21 points. Even the terminology is similar to ping pong with the term “love” when the score reaches 20. When the score is tied 20-all, two successive points must be scored to clinch victory.

Sipa is always played on a best-of-three games basis.

The object of the game is to send the ball over to the opponent’s court and hope the opponent will not be able to return it. When this happens, you get one point. You have to try to return the ball to the opponent for as long as you can, if you want to win.

VARATION: The players stand facing each other at a convenient distance or in a circle. One player tosses the sipa sipa ball. The sipa sipa ball is kicked back and forth until it touches the ground. The purpose of the game is to keep the sipa sipa ball in the air as long as possible.

Sipa enjoyed its heyday during the Commonwealth era of President Manuel Quezon when each district of Manila had Sipa teams and tournaments were conducted regularly.

History/Description of Sepak Takraw

Earliest historical evidence shows that the game was played in the 15th century’s Malacca Sultanate, for it is mentioned in the Malay historical text, “Sejarah Melayu” (Malay Annals). The Malay Annals described in details the incident of Raja Muhammad, a son of Sultan Mansur Shah who was accidentally hit with a rattan ball by Tun Besar, a son of Tun Perak, in a Sepak raga game. The ball hit Raja Muhammad’s headgear and knocked it down to the ground.

In anger, Raja Muhammad immediately stabbed and killed Tun Besar, whereupon some of Tun Besar’s kinsmen retaliated and wanted to kill Raja Muhammad. However, Tun Perak managed to restrain them from such an act of treason by saying that he would no longer accept Raja Muhammad as the Sultan’s heir. As a result of this incident, Sultan Mansur Shah ordered his son out of Malacca and had him installed as the ruler of Pahang.

In Indonesia, sepak takraw was spread from nearby Malacca across the strait to Riau islands and Riau area in Sumatra as early as 16th century, where it is also called as Sepak Raga in local Malay tongue, at that time some of Sumatran areas were part of Malacca sultanate. From there the

Malay people spread across archipelago and introduced the game to Buginese people in Sulawesi. Then the game is developed as Buginese traditional game which is called “Raga” (the players are called “Pa’Raga”). The “Raga” can trace its origin from Malacca Sultanate, and was popular in South Sulawesi since 19th century. Some men playing “Raga” encircling within a group, the ball is passed from one to another and the man who kicked the ball highest is the winner. “Raga” is also played for fun by demonstrating some tricks, such as kicking the ball and putting it on top of player’s head holds by tengkolok bugis (Bugis cloth headgear similar to Malay tanjak).

In Bangkok, murals at Wat Phra Kaeo which was built in 1785, depict the Hindu god Hanuman playing sepak takraw in a ring with a troop of monkeys. Other historical accounts mention the game earlier during the reign of King Naresuan (1590–1605) of Ayutthaya. The game remained in its circle form for hundreds of years, and the modern version of sepak takraw began taking shape in Thailand sometime during early 1740s. In 1829 the Siam Sports Association drafted the first rules for takraw competition. Four years later, the association introduced the volleyball-style net and held the first public contest. Within just a few years, takraw was introduced to the curriculum in Siamese schools. The game became such a cherished local custom that another exhibition of volleyball-style takraw was staged to celebrate the kingdom’s first constitution in 1933, the year after Thailand abolished absolute monarchy.

In the Philippines the sport was called “sipa” and along with traditional martial arts survived the three century Spanish colonization. It is a popular sport played by children in Philippines, this is their national sport. Sepak Takraw is included in Philippine’s elementary and highschool curriculum.In Myanmar, or Burma, it was dubbed “Chinlone”, in Laos “Kator”, “cầu mây” in Vietnam and in Indonesia “Raga” or “Sepak Takraw”.

It is believed that many variations of the game evolved from an ancient Chinese military exercise, where soldiers would try to keep a feathered shuttlecock airborne by kicking it back and forth between two people. As the sport developed, the animal hide and chicken feathers were eventually replaced by balls made of woven strips of rattan.

The first versions of sepak takraw were not so much of a competition, but rather cooperative displays of skill designed to exercise the body, improve dexterity and loosen the limbs after long periods of sitting, standing or working.

The modern version of sepak takraw is fiercely competitive and began taking shape in Thailand almost 200 years ago. In 1829, the Siam Sports Association drafted the first rules for the game. Four years later, the association introduced the volleyball-style net and held the first public contest. Within just a few years, sepak takraw was introduced to the Physical Training curriculum in schools.

By the 1940s, the net version of the game had spread throughout Southeast Asia, and formal rules were introduced. This sport became officially known as ‘sepak takraw’.


Regulations of Chinese Garter
1. Players : minimum number of two members per team
2. Setting: anywhere spaceful to jump on

3. Equipment : Garter

4. Pre-game :

* Assign the first team to be the game posts that will be the one to hold the garter at each end. “Movement”
The objective of the game then is to be able to successfully jump over the garter as it is gradually held higher by the game posts. Just like in the game 10-20, each team also has its own team leader, more commonly known as the “Mother”. Once a team member either touches the garter or fails to jump at a certain level, the Mother can still save her team by taking her team member’s turn. Failure to do so will lead to the team’s elimination by making them the new game posts and will bring the game back to the first level. History/Description of Chinese Garter

Chinese Garter, a game requiring flexibility, balance and coordination, is a popular game for Filipino children, most specifically among girls during their elementary years. The game revolves around an ordinary garter, around two to three yards long, which can be brought from the sewing store at around twenty pesos or less.

Players are divided into two or more teams, with a minimum number of two members per team. During the game, two members of the “it” team shall serve as “game posts” as they stand opposite each other and hold each end of the garter. The objective of the game then is to be able to successfully jump over the garter as it is gradually held higher by the game posts. Just like in the game 10-20, each team also has its own team leader, more commonly known as the “Mother”. Once a team member either touches the garter or fails to jump at a certain level, the Mother can still save her team by taking her team member’s turn. Failure to do so will lead to the team’s elimination by making them the new game posts and will bring the game back to the first level.

The Chinese Garter game is usually subdivided into ten levels. Most of the time, however, the players may decide for their desired number of levels for their game. Here is an example of the levels being used to give you an idea of the game: Level 1 – The garter is being held by the posts closer to the ground. Level 2 – Knee high

Level 3 – Around the height of their hips
Level 4 – Waist high
Level 5 – Chest high
Level 6 – Shoulder high
Level 7 – Head high
Level 8 – At the tip of the head
Level 9 – A few inches above the head
Level 10 – Also known as the Father / Mother Jump, as high as a kid raising his arms high on tip toes

The game usually ends after the highest jump. However, some kids would continue playing the game backwards. Instead of raising the garter higher, the posts shall hold the garter back to its lower position. The game now has a new objective: to be able to reach the garter by bending backwards. The game continues this way until the player reaches back to the lowest level.

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