1. AWIT is a form of Filipino poetry. Its literal translation into English is “song,” although in the context of poetry, it is closer to the narrative. Ang awit ay isang uri ng tulang pasalaysay na binubuo ng tig-aapat na taludtod ang bawat saknong, na ang bawat taludtod ay may lalabindalawahing pantig, at ang tradisyonal na dulong tugma ay isahan (aaaa, bbbb, cccc, at iba pa). Karaniwang paksa ng awit ang pakikipagsapalaran ng bayani, ngunit ang iba’y tumatalakay din sa mga alamat at relihiyosong tula. Sa pag-aaral ng batikang mananaliksik Damiana L. Eugenio, ang “awit” ay walang ikinaiba sa “korido”, maliban lamang sa bilang ng pantig sa bawat taludtod. Ang awit, gaya ng korido, ay nagtataglay ng tatlong elemento. Una, ang pag-iibigan. Ikalawa, ang relihiyoso at pangangaral. At ikatlo, ang kahima-himala at kagila-gilalas
2. PROPAGANDA is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position. Propaganda is information that is not impartial and used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively (thus possibly lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or using loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than rational response to the information presented. Propaganda can be used as a form of ideological or commercial warfare.
3. KKK – Katipunan
Samaháng Kataástaasan, Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan Formation
July 7, 1892
May 10, 1897
Deodato Arellano (1892-1893)
Roman Basa (1893-1895)
Andrés Bonifacio (1895-1897)
Tondo, Manila; Kawit, Cavite
*The Katipunan (abbreviated to KKK) was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7, when Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan. Initially, the Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution. The Tagalog word “katipunan,” literally means ‘association,’ comes from the root word “tipon,” a Tagalog word meaning “gather together” or “society.” Its official revolutionary name was Samahang Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃a Anak ng̃ Bayan (English: Supreme and Most Honorable Society of the Children of the Nation, Spanish: Suprema y Venerable Asociación de los Hijos del Pueblo). The Katipunan is also known by its acronym, KKK. The organization has no affiliation with the racist group known as the Ku Klux Klan who are also associated with the acronym “KKK”.
Being a secret organization, its members were subjected to the utmost secrecy and were expected to abide with the rules established by the society. Aspirant applicants were given standard initiation rites to become members of the society. At first, membership in the Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos; later, women were accepted in the society. The Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan (Liberty) that had its first and last print on March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and Philippine literature were expanded by some of its prominent members.
In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for his full-fledged support for the Katipunan in exchange for a promise of rescuing Rizal from his detainment. On May 1896, a delegation was sent to the Emperor of Japan to solicit funds and military arms. The Katipunan’s existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named Teodoro Patiño confessed the Katipunan’s illegal activities to his sister, and finally to the mother portress of Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the Spanish authorities learned of the existence of the secret society, on August 26, 1896, Bonifacio and his men tore their cédulas during the infamous Cry of Pugadlawin that started the Philippine Revolution
4. KORIDO isang uri ng panitikang pilipino, isang uri ng tulang nakuha natin sa impluwensiya ng mga Espanyol. Ito ay may sukat na walong pantig bawat linya at may apat na linya sa isang saknong. Ang korido ay binibigkas sa pamamagitan ng pakantang pagpapahayag ng mga tula.
5. PLAY is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of scripted dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community theatre, as well a University or school productions. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference whether their plays were performed or read. The term “play” can refer to both the written works of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance.
6. SHORT STORY is a brief work of literature, usually written in narrative prose. Emerging from earlier oral storytelling traditions in the 17th century, the short story has grown to encompass a body of work so diverse as to defy easy characterization. At its most prototypical the short story features a small cast of named characters, and focuses on a self-contained incident with the intent of evoking a “single effect” or mood. In doing so, short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components to a far greater degree than is typical of an anecdote, yet to a far lesser degree than a novel. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel, authors of both generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques.
7. ESSAY is generally scholarly pieces of writing giving the author’s own argument, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.
8. DECALOGUE ( EMILIO JACINTO )
Bonifacio realized that in order to strengthen the katipunan, the members had to be disciplined and indoctrinated with the ideals of the revolutionary society. In his “Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Z. Ll. B.” (“The Duties of the Sons of the People”), Bonifacio listed down the rules of the Katipunan which constitute a decalogue:
I. Love God with all your heart.
II. Bear always in mind that the love of God is also the love of country, and thiis, too, is love of one’s fellow-men. III. Engrave in your heart that the true measure of honor and happiness is to die for the freedom of your country. IV. All your good wishes will be crowned with success if you have serenity, constancy, reason, and faith in your acts and endeavor. V. Guard the mandates and aims of the K.K.K. as you guard your honor. VI. It is the duty of all to deliver, at the risk of their own lives and wealth, anyone who runs great risks in the performance of his duty. VII. Our responsibility to ourselves and the performance of our duties will be the example set for our fellow-men to follow. VIII. Insofar as it is within your power, share your means with the poor and the unfortunate. IX. Diligence in the work that gives sustenance to you is the true basis of love — love for your own self, for your wife and children, and for your brothers and countrymen. X. Punish any scoundrel and traitor and praise all good work. Believe, likewise, that the aims of the K.K.K. are God-given for the will of the people is also the will of God.
9. SEMI AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL NOVEL
An autobiographical novel is a form of novel using autofiction techniques, or the merging of autobiographical and fictive elements. The literary technique is distinguished from an autobiography or memoir by the stipulation of being fiction. Because an autobiographical novel is partially fiction, the author does not ask the reader to expect the text to fulfill the “autobiographical pact”. Names and locations are often changed and events are recreated to make them more dramatic but the story still bears a close resemblance to that of the author’s life. While the events of the author’s life are recounted, there is no pretense of exact truth. Events may be exaggerated or altered for artistic or thematic purposes.
Novels that portray settings and/or situations with which the author is familiar are not necessarily autobiographical. Neither are novels that include aspects drawn from the author’s life as minor plot details. To be considered an autobiographical novel by most standards, there must be a protagonist modeled after the author and a central plotline that mirrors events in his or her life. Novels that do not fully meet these requirements or are further distanced from true events are sometimes called semi-autobiographical novels. Many novels about intense, private experiences such as war, family conflict or sex, are written as autobiographical novels
Jose Rizal used the penname Laong Laan in the 1890s when he wrote poems and articles for La Solidaridad, then the Propaganda Movement’s strongest voice. Literally translated it means “reserved for a long time” and figuratively it means “laging handa” or “ever ready.” Dimasalang was the pseudonym of Jose Rizal that he adopted when he entered Freemasonry in 1883. He widely used this pseudonym in his articles in 1990’s. Literally [ hin] di masalang means “untouchable” in Taal Tagalog.
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