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Pharmacology Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Randomized Controlled Trials

Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold level standard of proof of many research techniques where treatments and therapies are concerned by the scientific community. A study in which participants are allocated at random to receive one of several treatments testing the effectiveness of psychological interventions or pharmacotherapy is known as a randomized controlled trial. This is a scientific study which is conducted by double-blind experiments. In a double-blind experiment neither the researcher nor the participants know who belongs to the control group and who belongs to the experiment group. This helps to eliminate conscious and unconscious bias by experimenter and participants. One variable is manipulated to get a true experiment while other variables are held constant. These trials establish…

Ethics in Pharma Marketing

The pharmaceutical market in India today is worth Rs.57206 crores up from Rs. 5000 crores in 1995*. It is one of the fastest growing markets with a growth rate of around 15%. India has a large number of Pharmaceutical companies which operate in an environment of high competition. The competition is even higher in a high generic market like in India where drugs are in fierce price competition. It is estimated that there are around 20,000 pharmaceutical companies* in India, competing for a share of the market, in a poorly regulated environment. To be ahead in the race, pharmaceutical companies are investing highly in marketing and promotion of their drugs. The Consumer International Report 2010, on an average, the Indian…

Herbal Medicine

Anything that exists on the earth has a need for survival. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), herbal medicines refers to health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant, animal and mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises, applied singularly or in combination to treat, diagnose and prevent illnesses or to maintain well-being. Different types of herbal medicines are widely applied in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to meet primary health-care needs. Herbal medicines have maintained its popularity in most regions of the developing world. The application is also rapidly spreading in industrialized countries. Worldwide, among all the different traditional medicine systems, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is currently the most popular, followed by Indian medicine. Herbal medicine…

Micro and Nanotechnology Adoption by the Pharmaceutical Industry

Micro and nanotechnology is starting to show promise in the pharmaceutical industry. The two key questions in this field are ‘what is nanotech’ and ‘aren’t all drugs nanotech – after all, they are in the nano size range’. These can be answered fairly simply; Nanotechnology is where the nano-size of a substance affects its activity – the size placing the substance at the interface between quantum and material effects. The classic example to demonstrate these effects is that of gold nanoparticles. Bulk gold is insoluble and metallic-yellow in colour. However, once the gold is formulated as a nanoparticle it is soluble and the size of the particle determines its colour – from bright blue to vivid red. Two key areas…

The Medicines Company Case

Q1 Value: Angiomax is a blood-thinning drug, or anticoagulant, used in emergency coronary heart care. Angiomax is positioned as an alternative to heparin, the most commonly used anticoagulant in emergency coronary heart care, so to assess Angiomax value to a hospital is required to compare these two drugs. First of all is necessary to analyze the differences in effectiveness of the products in treatments. The use of heparin has associated some general disadvantages like: • Unpredictable effects: it is difficult to use properly since its effectiveness depends on achieving a certain level of anticoagulation of the blood, too much might lead to uncontrolled bleeding and too little might not prevent a blood clot • • High risk of uncontrolled bleeding:…

Baby Boomers: Effect on Health Care

A baby boomer is a person who was born during the demographic World War II baby boom and who grew up during the period of 1946-1964. This population of Americans will soon be over the age of 65. When the last of the baby boomers reach retirement age, almost 20% of the U.S. population will be 65 and older compared to less than 13% today. By 2030, there will be more than 70 million Americans over age 65 (Taylor, 2005). There is a major concern of how this increased population will affect the healthcare system. Medical care for retiring and aging citizens may strain resources and future generations maybe faced with higher inflation and higher taxes to cover the cost…

Adverse Drug Reactions

When we take medications using western medicine, one thing we know is for sure, we will be treated. But what we don’t know is that there is always the “other side” of everything. Not all drugs are safe. Some may be even give us even worse illnesses. In other countries, there are more than 3% of all deaths seem to be caused by adverse drug reactions to medical drugs, according to research. On the contrary, Philippines don’t have a high risk of deaths that causes these because here in our country, we rely on those alternative medicines or herbal medicines. It is a lot cheaper but actually, it doesn’t have those therapeutic claims so it has a minimal assurance of…

Big Pharma’s Marketing Tactics

The Big Pharma controversy is about the wide-scale marketing malpractices used by big pharmaceutical companies in America which resulted in a series of negative implications on consumers. It revolves around pharmaceutical companies, government regulators, health professionals (or “unprofessional”), market consumers and the medical watchdogs. The dispute was formed between the supporters of the marketing tactics used by pharmaceutical representatives and the detractors to it. Specifically it is the context that matters: Is it right, or rather ethical for the medical professionals to profit at the expense of the patients? Are there more underlying factors that led to this controversy? It is important to achieve a balance between the benefits and drawbacks of the marketing tactics used by the pharmaceutical industry;…

Youths and the Challenge of Future Leadership

The Youths they say are ‘the future leaders’. The questions that readily come to mind is; are the youths really ready for the future leadership? Are they trained and cultured for the desired future leadership? Which precedence are we bequeathing to the youths to enable them to aspire for the future leadership of Nigeria? As rhetoric as these may sound, the need to provide answers to these questions is imperative. Nigerian youths are engaged in so many vices that are unproductive, which make their preparedness for the future leadership questionable. It is truism that leaders, elders or and adults prepare the youths by way of showing good examples, as it is also incumbent on the youths to wake up to…

Evaluating a Drug Licensing Opportunity

Davanrik is a new drug developed by LAB Pharmaceuticals, which has the potential to treat depression and obesity. Davanrik was initially developed to treat depression by stimulating the receptor in the serotonin system that promotes anti-depression. However, it was discovered that Davanrik also blocks the receptor that causes hunger. LAB Pharmaceuticals obtained a patent for Davanrik with a max remaining life of 17 years. LAB Pharmaceuticals is a small and relatively new (15 years) company in the pharmaceutical field. LAB Pharmaceuticals has never had any of their compounds successfully complete the FDA approval process and in a response to a denial of a recent compound, the company’s stock dropped by over 30%. In 2000, needing an in-flow of cash and…

Teva Case Study

In an industry full of intense rivalries battling for low-cost opportunities, many major players in the pharmaceutical industry, such as Teva Pharmaceutical, are struggling to meet their profit margins due to a number of reasons. With increasing competition, new low-cost companies have learned from the past successes of Teva and their impact on this growing market. So how did Teva become the world’s leading producer of generic pharmaceuticals? Using a “highly focused approach”, which will be talked about in detail later, Teva saw revenue streams grow from $91 million in 1985 to $8. 5 billion in 2006. Starting in Israel, the firm saw significant opportunities for growth in an economy that was also growing at a fast pace. However, Eli…

The Modern Prohibition: Legalizing Marijuana

The fight over legalizing marijuana has been going on for many years. Many people are not aware of the huge impact legalizing marijuana would have. It has many medicinal uses, it is less harmful than alcohol and other legal drugs, and keeping it illegal is very expensive, and it. Prohibition did not work in the 1920’s, and it is surely not working again. One reason why marijuana should be legalized is, it would save our government a huge amount of money. In the United States, all levels of government (federal, state, and local authorities) participate in the “War on Drugs.” Billions of dollars are spent each year on trying to prevent people from using marijuana, and putting people in prison…

Alcohol, Smoking and Drugs

Before anyone ever takes a hit, or a drink, or a smoke, there is a decision made in the mind – a healthy decision or an unhealthy one. Sometimes as ourselves making a healthy choice is hard because we are tired, stressed, angry, pressured, or influenced by another person – e.g why we end up eating chocolate instead of fruit as eating things like chocolate stimulates our minds. As nicotine is legal to take at the age of 16 by law it has become a well known behaviour for 16 year olds and sometimes younger individuals to do. It’s also socially acceptable within a crowd at school and is almost promoted by older peers and even role models in the…

Merck & Company, Inc: The Recall of Vioxx

Introduction Geroge W. Merck stated once stated, “We try never to forget that medicine is for the people. It is not for the profits. The profits follow. Initially, Vioxx was the blockbuster drug that Merck needed due to the upcoming Zocor patent cliff in 2006. With an estimated 27,785 heart attacks and sudden cardiac deaths that could have been avoided if Celebrex had been used instead of Vioxx, Merck faces the possibility of not only having to pay enormous civil and criminal penalties, but also losing the trust of patients. Many parties are partially culpable, but Merck faces the severe uphill battle of regaining a reputation that once served as a market differentiator; in the 1980’s, Merck was voted the…

Drugstore Supply Channel of Bangladesh and Other Countries of the World

The pharmaceutical industry of Bangladesh is at a matured stage with strong companies like Square, Beximco, Incepta etc. Drug stores have emerged in a good amount as well. Lazz Pharma once was the only good place to buy medicines which is not the current condition of the market. This is mostly because of the new technological additions to maintain an effective supply chain in the business. As the market got developed, competition rose as well. Hence, companies tried to adapt new technologies and advancement to hold a stronger position than their competitors. In addition, most of the intermediaries in the channel are owned by the companies. Therefore, the control is more on their side which helps them to maintain such…

Peruvian market

My final paper will focus in the Peruvian generic medicine market. The Peruvian market is dominated by the leading laboratories who set the prices and control the brands. Peruvian customers are used to follow doctors prescriptions strictly and believe that the use of generics is dangerous. This situation allows the laboratories to capture the market and set the prices (Peruvian medicines are more expensive than in the USA). The Peruvian health agency; “Ministerio de salud” signed a cooperation agreement with national association of pharmacies for them to distribute 83 of the most used generic medicines along with the brand medicines. They never kept up the agreement, and the pharmacies refuse to sell generic medicines. The generic drug industry covers the…

Case analysis of Big Pharma’s Marketing Tactics

Understanding Big Pharma: The US Pharmaceutical industry is the 2nd most profitable industry in the country. The nature of the industry follows an oligopoly form; with the big players yield much influence, hence lending to its name, “Big Pharma”. By 2010, Big Pharma has a staggering 526 lobbyists and gives an estimated $19 billion worth of gifts to physicians annually. Understanding Business ethics: The definition of ethics is given by as follows, “Ethics are moral principles that govern a person’s behavior or the conducting of an activity.” (Lawrence & Webber, 2008) Basically, they are the issues of identifying right and wrong in our daily life, serving as a moral compass. Then what are business ethics? Business ethics is the application…

A Comparative Study of the European Pharmaceutical Industry

Having healthy citizens is vital to the development of a country. Introducing effective and new methods of using drugs is the key to the improvement of an individual’s quality of life, which could minimize the amount of confinement and medical intervention (House of Commons 2005: 3). In the economy of Great Britain, the pharmaceutical industry is the third most viable income generator next to tourism and finance. Although the United States is still the leader as far as the pharmaceuticals industry is concerned, the United Kingdom remains as the vanguard of the industry in Europe. It constitutes 10% of pharmaceutical research & development costs in the world. According to estimates, the United Kingdom funds 65% of all health-related research &…

In-Licensing in Pharma

INTRODUCTION The process of bringing a new drug to market is an extremely expensive one, often costing above $200 million. This enormous cost can be explained by the fact that a very small fraction of molecules in research and development ultimately become pharmaceutical products. However, the rewards of a successful new product can be tremendous generating, depending on the therapeutic areas in which the product will be used and the disease it will directed to, from millions to billions of dollars of sales annually worldwide. Many pharmaceutical companies are facing a pipeline gap because of the increasing economic burden and uncertainty associated with internal research and development programs designed to develop new pharmaceutical products. The need for large pharmaceutical companies…

Fasibility on Generic Pharmacy

INTRODUCTION According to http://en.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacy DRUGSTORE is a common American term for a type of store centrally featuring a pharmacy. Drugstores sell not only branded and generic medicines, but also miscellaneous items such as candy, cosmetics, and magazines, as well as light refreshments. During the height of the “war on drugs”, many stores removed the term “Drugstore” from their signage and replaced it with the more politically correct term “Pharmacy”. A PHARMACY is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services…

Mercury Drug

From its humble beginnings, Mercury Drug has gone beyond expectations. Shortly after the liberation of Manila from Japanese occupation, Mariano Que, realizing the need of the people for medicines, bought with his hard earned of P100 of P1000 tablets of Sulfathiazole and sold it “patingi-tingi” for P1.00 per tablet in the sidewalks of Bambang, Manila. Sulfathiazole is a wonder drug that cures all during that time. From pushcart – peddling and with his previous working experience in a drugstore before the war, he eventually opened his first small drugstore in Bambang Street. Mercury drug has today grown into a vast network of over 700 company-owned and franchised stores nationwide. Mercury Drug Stores Success Mercury Drug believes that it owes its…

Medical Marijuana

Introduction: “Cannabis isn’t for everybody, but patients are entitled to pick and choose their own medicine.” Michelle Rainey (VanMusic, 2010, Pg. 1) Thesis: The prescription drug companies dispense medicines that are harmful and that is what I am here to change your minds about today. This will explore what Medical Marijuana can be used for, the lies you’ve been told about Marijuana and how corrupt the Pharmaceutical drug companies are. Body: I. Why is Marijuana medicine? 1) What THC does in our bodies (Wikipedia Cannabinoid Receptor, n.d., Pg.1) * Cannabinoid receptors are activated by 3 major groups of: Ligands, Endocannabinoids (found in the mammalian body) and Plant Cannabinoids (found in THC in plants). 2) What can Marijuana treat? (Wikipedia Medical…

Are We an Overmedicated Society

Are we an overmedicated society? Have you ever opened your medicine cabinet, and really looked at its contents? Have you ever stopped to wonder exactly what is in those bottles, and what it is doing inside your body? Do we really need all of those drugs? These are the questions I began asking myself a few years ago, and I feel most people should be questioning these things more often. Every time that I see a new commercial or advertisement that highlights a dangerous drug and the resulting lawsuits, I have to wonder how many drugs out there are just as dangerous, but haven’t been documented yet. How many diseases are fabricated so that more drugs can be sold? We…

Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Cam)

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes a variety of interventions—from exercise and dietary supplements to stress management strategies, biofeedback, and acupuncture. These therapies—which come from many different disciplines and traditions—are generally considered to be outside the realm of conventional medicine. When used in combination with conventional medicine, they are referred to as “complementary;” when used instead of conventional medicine, they are referred to as “alternative.” In the United States today, approximately 75% of people with MS use one form or another of CAM, generally in combination with their prescribed MS treatments. Are CAM Therapies Safe to Use? Many people use CAM because they believe that anything sold over-the-counter at a pharmacy or health food store is healthy and harmless. However,…

Current Pharma Scenario in India

The Indian Pharmaceutical industry has been witnessing phenomenal growth in recent years, driven by rising consumption levels in the country and strong demand from export markets. The pharmaceutical industry in India is estimated to be worth about US$ 8 bn, growing at an annual rate of 12-15%. In world rankings, the domestic industry stands 3rd in terms of volume and 12th in value growth terms. The ranking in value terms may also be a reflection of the low prices at which medicines are sold in the country. The industry has seen tremendous progress in terms of infrastructure development, technology base and the wide range of products manufactured. Demand from the exports market has been growing rapidly due to the capability…

Simulation Paper

In this simulation the issue that is brought up is the fact that a pharmaceutical company is making all sorts of medicines and health products. Their intention is to use the rainforests resources to make the products that is used to help people with their health from the medicines they create. This scenario has the issue of the rainforest being cut down but not kept up with when it comes to being replenished and how the rainforests are becoming desolate places. There are many different people that have a say in this matter and it is issue that has to be identified and recognized and a plan formulated to deal with it. But this issue not only includes the rainforest…

Online Pharmacy System

I. INTRODUCTION There are many different ways in which “Quality” can be defined or approached. There is no simple answer because quality is relative. It depends not only on the subject matter, but also on perceptions of quality from different viewpoints. An Economist might approach quality in terms of value for money. An Engineer’s approach to quality might be one expressed in terms of technical accuracy and completeness. A journalist might say quality means accuracy of information and comprehensiveness. But none of these perceptions are wholly right or wrong. What is needed is a balanced approach that accommodates as many requirements as possible, while accepting that no solution will be a perfect fit for all. – Mr. Adebola Ogunpitan Blogger*…

Pfizer Competitor Analysis

The value that the branded pharmaceutical industry adds to the US economy is growing slower than US GDP (Snyder, 2012). Rivalry has intensified while the rate of blockbuster drug development has slowed due to an increase in regulation from the government and the industry trade association, PhRMA. The number of new entrants is fairly low and some are exiting or consolidating through mergers and acquisitions. Downstream and upstream factors are crucial to the specialty pharmaceutical sector of this industry since supply and distribution are different than in traditional branded pharmaceuticals. Complementors such as antiemetics and substitutes such as marijuana and acupuncture exist but currently do not play a large enough role to affect rivalry. In the pharmaceutical market, the degree…

Organizational Strategies for Quality Assessment and Improvement

Ambiguous medical notations are one of the most common and preventable causes of medication errors (Grissinger & Kelly, 2005). Drug names, dosage units, and directions for use should be written clearly to minimize confusion. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) and the Food and Drug Administration recommend that error-prone abbreviations are considered whenever medical information is communicated (Institute for Medical Safety, 2012). Medication errors result in thousand of adverse drug events, deaths, and preventable reactions every year (Grissinger & Kelly, 2005). Healthcare personnel, IMSP, the pharmaceutical industry, and The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are some of the groups responsible for determining how these medication errors occur and designing strategies to reduce these errors (Institute for Medical Safety, 2012)….

Administer Medication to Individuals

This governs the manufacture and supply of medicines. This requires that the local pharmacist or dispensing doctor is responsible for supplying medication. He or she can only do this on the receipt of a prescription from an authorised person e.g. a doctor. According to the law (The Medicines Act 1968) medicines can be given by a third party, e.g. a suitably trained care worker, to the person that they were intended for when this is strictly in accordance with the directions that the prescriber has given. The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and Amendments 1985, 2001 This controls dangerous or otherwise harmful drugs designated as Controlled drugs. (CD) The main purpose of this act is to prevent the misuse of…