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Petroleum Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Government Control and Subsidy of Energy vs. Private Sector Investment

A subsidy is a payment from the government to a business to encourage the continual use or development of a technology or product that is considered to be useful or beneficial to the society. Most often, the money (or subsidies) is coming directly from taxpayers. This is where Milton Friedman’s signature phrase, “there’s no such thing as a free lunch” comes in to play. A unit of a product or service may be free for one person, someone or something is enduring an opportunity cost. Currently, renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power are being subsidized by roughly $24 billion a year because of the perceived environmental benefits that go along with “green” technologies. However, renewable energy companies…

Natural Resources of Bangladesh

There are 22 discovered gas fields in Bangladesh of various sizes. The total reserve of 20 gas fields is about 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet). Gas in most of the fields is dry, in a few fields it is wet. For example at Beanibazar (16 bbl/mmcfg), Jalalabad (15 bbl/mmcfg), and Kailashtila (13 bbl/mmcfg). Currently, natural gas accounts for more than 70% of the total commercial energy consumption and the major part of the future energy demand would be met from it. Power sector ranks the highest (44%) ,fertiliser sector ranks the second (28%), and industry, domestic, commercial and other sectors together rank third (22%) in gas consumption. Currently 12 gas fields under public and private sectors are in production with…

Algal Bio-Diesel Power Plant

Algae- most promising alternative renewable energy source available. It decreases the need for fossil fuels and thus makes our environment healthier. Algae oil is produced as much faster as 30 times than other biomass feedstock while its producing amount is up to 300 times more resulting 600 tons of bio-diesel per day which will produce 200MW of electricity per hour. MAJOR COMPONENTS IN ALGAE BIO-DIESEL POWER PLANT: 1. Algae plantation 2. Algae oil extraction and bio-diesel plant 3. Internal combustion power plant Continuous Algae production utilizing the photobioreactors is a highly reliable method for producing high density monocultures of marine and fresh water algae. The total control of all parameters are automatically controlled via a PLC, making the device dramatically…

Alternative Fuels – Data

Nowadays, there are a lot of alternative fuels which have discovered by human beings in order to replace the depleting non-renewable fossil fuels supply. In fact, organic chemistry has successfully proved that organic compounds can be served substitution of fossil fuel supply. The structure and physical properties of organic molecules are characteristics that aid them to become useful fuels for human beings. Ethanol, propane and methane are examples of organic compounds which are commonly used as fuels today. What are the structure and physical properties of these compounds that help them to act as excellent alternative fuel sources? Figure 1 Energy-rich organic molecules (biofuels) are used to fuel cars, planes and ships (Smart Energy Initiative of Southeastern Pennsylvania, 2012) Quantity…

Apache Corporation

Apache Corporation was formed in 1954, based on the idea of becoming significant and prosperous in the oil industry. The company took $250,000 of investor capital, paired it with fierce determination and now Apache Corporation is considered one of the top independent oil and gas exploration and production companies in the world (“Apachecorp.com”, 2012). Apache Corporation operates in both domestic and international markets exploring for, developing, and producing natural gas, crude oil, and natural gas liquids (“Apachecorp.com”, 2012). On December 31, 2011, the Company had production in the United States, Canada, Egypt, and Australia. Offshore production exists in the United Kingdom, the North Sea, and Argentina. Looking into the future Apache plans to continue to explore other countries for new…

Bp’s Ethical Culture

We will go through the BP business context and culture, safety aspect, organization capability, responsiveness and risk assessment aspects of their ethical culture, result from the management and caused the disaster. BP Business Context and ethical culture: From the BP management employer aspects, they are not follow some mechanical level, safety procedure over and ignored which required by Act (e.g. Clean Air Act) over 8 year for their production. At the end the huge explosion occurred in March 2005. Because of the hydrocarbon liquid leakage and vapor, the ignition explosion result of the accident. They failed to give the safeguards protection tools to protect employees, this accident killing employees and injured people in Texas oil refinery. And the other issue…

Business Model of Total

1 Introduction There is no special and particular slogan used by transmit through its products. Total is using different slogans for their several kind of product lines in the countries, where they sale the products. “Winners fill up with TOTAL!” is the slogan in Germany for the B2C segment for their filling stations. 2 Company Profile – TOTAL The former “Compagnie francaise des pétroles”, now TOTAL S.A., is founded on March 28th in 1924, together with its subsidiaries and affiliates. The history of TOTAL began in the Iraqi sands in the 1920s. TOTAL began its Upstream in the Middle East in 1924. Over the past decades the company grew up, developed and expanded its presence throughout the world. Since 1999,…

Chevron Analysis

Chevron is a world-renowned company that is a leader in the development of energy resources that help drive human progression. The ability to meet the needs of ever-expanding energy consumption is what makes Chevron an innovative and market leading company. When people think of Chevron many think of “Big Oil”, when in fact, its business strategy is very complex and entails: * Exploration and Production (oil and natural gas) * Manufacturing, Products (lubricants, etc.) * Transportation (global trading, pipelines, shipping, etc.) * Other businesses (chemicals, mining, power and technology) “The company’s vision is to be the global energy company most admired for its people, partnership and performance“(Chevron.com). With this being said, the company as a whole is built on a…

Petroleum Engineering: Research Proposal

Petroleum engineering is technical activities related to the hydrocarbon production – either crude oil or gas. The importance of petroleum engineering is swiftly increasing and researchers try to highlight peculiarities and innovations in their writings. Petroleum engineering is main substance discipline within the gas and oil industry which concentrates on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons. Therefore, the intended audience will be researchers and scientists who are interested in promoting petroleum engineering which offers certain benefits, and common people who are interested in innovative technologies. As far as petroleum engineering is related to many scientific fields, I am sure that economists, engineers, geologists and drillers will find the material informative and valuable. The current research will be assessed through the methods…

Utilization Of Used Plastic Cups

Filipinos are fond of eating bin fast-food counters where Styrofoam, plastic cups, they become disposable, thus becoming the bulk of our garbage. They are also considered as non-biodegradable, hence, cannot be used again by other living things. The only way is to convert them to another usable form. Moreover, due to large production of plastics, they bring pollution and deterioration in the environment. Destruction of the present surroundings results when disposing plastic continuously are not controlled. Plastic is a synthetic material that is made by polymerizing molecules of monomer materials that are derived from coal, petroleum, or natural gas. It is a preferred material because it is lightweight, flexible, durable, versatile, and mostly affordable. It is used for manufacturing a…

International Negotiation Repsol/Ypf

YPF (Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales) is an Argentinean company engaged in the exploration, exploitation, distillation, distribution and sale of petroleum and its products. It is the largest company in Argentina, employing more than 46,000 people. It was founded as a state enterprise in 1922 but In 1992 was privatized given that it had ceased to be profitable, few years later in 1999, YPF was acquired by the Spanish company Repsol, which took control of 97.81% of YPF after having gone to the tender offer (OPA) by a cash payment of more than 15.000 million. 1 For more than 12 years, the operations of YPF in Argentina didn’t have major problems, however as the time passed, in 2011 conflicts between YPF and…

Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel

As time goes on, humans are discovering new ways to improve their means of living. Whether the upgrade affects us financially, socially, or if it helps the Earth, or better health and education, things are changing. Multiple enhancements in fueling one’s car have risen. Gas has become pricey, and the controversial argument that oil will one day perish are factors that have led people to find other alternatives. Biodiesel is an efficient alternative fuel, for the reason that biodiesel is a safe, eco-friendly, and affordable option. Biodiesel is a clean burning alternative fuel. It is renewable and generated from a variety of vegetable oils and animal fats, not raw vegetable oil. Raw vegetable oil cannot be utilized because it has…

Fluctuating Gas Prices

Gas prices have been on a rapid rise the last few years and not many people are happy with it. It limits those on a budget for how much they can do and how much they are willing to drive. Lately, gas prices have been fluctuating in price and going up but are more recently going back down, which gives people a little more flexibility at times in their schedule. It lets people do things such as travel and more, that they were not able to do last summer when gas prices were right around as well as over $4.00 a gallon, which made people cut back on those unimportant things. Supply and demand plays two major factors that have…

Martha Stewart’s Loss Reputation

Martha Stewart is a well-known and respected woman who represents the successful women that made it on their own in today’s society. Not only is she a stock broker, but her fashion, style, good taste, TV show and her line of house wares is what got her the popular publicity among many. When allegations against Martha Stewart surfaced many questioned her ethical actions. Due to allegations her profit reduces and the MSO dropped. Martha Stewart’s main target consisted of women who were attracted by her charisma. Let’s face it Martha was good at what she did, and women wanted to be like her by purchasing her products. Martha’s customers trusted her products and believed in its purpose. When the accusations…

Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage

To relief the high demand of energy, countries like United States, Venezuela and especially Canada with 232 billion bbl recoverable unconventional reservoirs which contain bitumen, heavy oil and extra heavy oil as remarkable resources of energy. The reducing high quality oil resources and increase of oil price contributed to production from heavy oil reservoirs in recent years. This paper investigates the heavy crude oil properties and evaluates the steam-assisted gravity drainage(SAGD) which has become the method of choice for oil sand producers and it is therefore critical to optimize this process. Analysis has been done to realize the influence of different parameters on SAGD. The effects of parameters such as horizontal well length, steam quality, viscosity, porosity, permeability in both…

Fuel Subsidy Removal in Nigeria

A subsidy is an assistance paid to a business or economic sector. Most subsidies are made by the government to producers or distributed as subventions in an industry to prevent the decline of that industry (‘Subsidy’, 2012). Subsidies are used to cushion the price effect of products or commodities or services to the consumer; hence it is used to control price in an economy and ensure the consumer can afford such commodity. This paper seeks to examine the removal of fuel subsidy in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry recently. Crude oil, since its discovery in commercial quantity in 1956, has been the main economic stay of my country, Nigeria. Mbendi (2012) reveals that Nigeria is the 10th largest oil producer in…

British Petroleum

The history of BP was set in motion as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company in Persia in 1901. William Knox D’Arcy, an English entrepreneur hired George Reynolds, a geologist and explorer to dig Persia for oil. Reynolds could smell natural gas and was most certain they would hit oil. After several years and after D’Arcy had spent nearly all his savings and on the verge of losing his homes, he gave Reynolds one last attempt. The orders were to drill 1600 feet and give up. This took several months of trials and tribulations but eventually paid off on May 26, 1908 after drilling 1,108 feet. A fountain of oil was discharged. Within a year, the Anglo-Persian Oil Company now known as…

Energy Summary

University of Phoenix This summary of Energy will review three cases, The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Yucca Mountain, and The Three Gorges Dam. It will identify each type of energy source, its relative abundance and environmental impact along with evaluating the economic and ethical issues of each energy source highlighted by these three cases. The summary will identify the interests of prominent stakeholders, and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each energy source according to each stakeholder’s point of view and present possible strategies for solving the limited-resource issues raised in these case studies with explaining the role of conservation in these strategies. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Since 1980 there has been an on and off debate regarding opening…

The Pros of Petroleum

Petroleum is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, mostly saturated or aromatic (~ 10%). It enables almost all inventions and contraption ever designed from cars to machinery. In principal most major technological invention use some part of petroleum based subsidiary without which we would be immobilized to a great extent. The advantages are plenty to list a few: Petroleum fuels are clean and it leaves no residue, no smoke and no pollutants. It burns readily as preheating is not required due to its low ignition temperature. The major advantage petroleum has over other fuel combustions are that the environmental impacts are less costly to rectify when compared to other fuel discharge. It is a very compact and can be easily stored…

Peak Oil and Energy Security

Energy security means having access to the requisite volumes of energy at affordable prices in association with national security and the availability of natural resources for energy consumption. From the perspective of a government concerned and the management of strategic interests, energy security implies energy policies and standby measures that can be implemented in the event of a supply disruption—and at a cost that its citizens consider reasonable. Such measures include energy supply diversification and a certain volume of energy stock. Definitions of Energy Security: The International Energy Agency (IEA) definitions of energy security have focused on the “adequate supply of energy at a reasonable cost”, and have referred to energy security to be just “another way of avoiding market…

Power and Energy Crisis of Bangladesh

Introduction Bangladesh is a country that has been exploited by many super powers in the past. 1st it was the British and then stated the Pakistani regime. Continuously oppressed and exploited by these powers the resources of this country were already half exhausted. When Bangladesh emerged on 1971, the country started a new journey towards self sufficiency with whatever left over resources she had. And with those Bangladesh has maintained her pride among the developing countries for more than 40 years. The power and energy sector of Bangladesh may not be strong like other countries but it has been more than enough to provide for the fellow residents and also for exporting abroad. But for how long can Bangladesh maintain…

Cold environments Case Study- Alaska

Location * State in the United States-international boundary with Canada to the east, arctic ocean to the north * Largest state in United States by area, however least densely populated Economy * GDP in 2007: $64,333 * Per capita personal income : $40,042, rank :15th in nation * Oil and gas industry dominates the Alaskan economy * More than 80% of states revenues derived from petroleum extraction * Main export : seafood , agriculture represent only fraction of economy * Largest employers: * Providence health and services : 4000+ av. Monthly employment in 2010 * Walmart: 3000-3259 av .monthly employment 2010 History * First oil claims in Alaska made in the 1890, noted oil sea pages on iniskin bay and…

The Misfortune of Secrets

Imagine a new type of technology that will decrease our unemployment rate, create many years’ worth of natural gas and crude oil in the United States, and reduce domestic imports of crude oil and natural gas, which would then improve national security. There actually is a technology that does such things. It’s called hydraulic fracturing, but it isn’t necessarily new. Hydraulic fracturing has been around since the 1940’s but has really started to boom in the mid-2000’s. it is the process of releasing natural gas from compact rocks, mostly from shale. The process involves injecting millions of gallons of a mixture of water and many chemicals into an underground rock formation in order to open factures, which release trapped gas…

TNK-BP Company

TNK-BP is an oil company that was created by the international oil company BP and Russian consortium AAR (Alfa Group and Access-Renova Group). It’s a scope alliance since: 1. BP and AAR’s relationship is partners, they are not competitors. According to the passage, although AAR has some business to do with oil, namely Sidanco. But it was mainly focus on banking, retailing, telecommunications, media and vodka, but BP is the oil company, which obviously is doing oil business for living. So they rarely share things in common before TNK-BP. 2. Their contribution of resources is different. Russia is known to be the largest oil and gas reserve country in the world, and AAR has access to these massive nature resources….

Expository Essay of Pollution

Today, the problem of environmental protection is one of the major global problems that threaten to the survival of the mankind and numerous species inhabiting the Earth. In such a situation, the use of fossil fuels is the major cause of the environmental pollution. Therefore, the introduction of alternative fuels can reduce consistently the pollution and, thus, improve the environmental situation worldwide. Modern industries and transport cannot function normally without the use of fossil fuels since there are no alternatives that can totally substitute them at the moment. At the same time, fossil fuels are the major source of the pollution of the environment because the use of fossil fuels leads to the emission of CO2 and other gases and…

Tax File Memorandum

SUBJECT: Peaceful Pastures Funeral Home, Inc. (Peaceful)IRS Audit Notice Today I met with Peaceful to discuss the IRS audit notice they received regarding the reporting of income from Peaceful’s prepaid program. FACTS: Peaceful does not report payments received from a preneed contract as income until the year in which the funeral service is provided. Peaceful’s preneed contract allows for a refund of payments at the contract purchaser’s request any time until the goods and services are provided. ISSUE: Should Peaceful include payments received from the prepaid program as income for the year in which they are received? CONCLUSION: Based upon the refund clause in the contract and the rulings in Comm. v. Indianapolis Power & Light Co. and Perry Funeral…

Problems of International Trade Case Study: Nigeria

1. INTRODUCTION International trade is the exchange of goods and services among countries for money. This involves the importation and exportation of goods and services. Many countries in the world are faced with problems engaging in international trade successfully. However international trade is one of the major determinants of a countries economic growth. Ideally every country should export more goods and services than it import goods and service. This differs on the natural resources, technology and labour force. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country with a population of over 150 million people. It is one of the largest oil producers in the continent creating huge inflows of foreign income. Without question it holds enormous commercial potential as recent administrations have…

Venezuela, Oil Industry

Introduction The economy of Venezuela is highly dependent on revenues from the oil industry. The export of oil represent 95% of the total export of the country, 40% of the budget revenues and 12% of the GDP (CIA The World Factbook, 2012). Venezuela is one of the founding countries of OPEC and is one of the fifth largest memberс. In the past, from 1950s to 1980s, the country’s economy was steadily growing, and during that time period, the country prospered and attracted many immigrants. Thanks to the oil industry Venezuela’s citizens enjoyed the highest living standard in Latin America. In early 1980s the oil prices collapsed and the country’s economy contracted. Today, Venezuela is one of the countries with highest…

Screening of Chemical Composition of Essential Oil

Screening of chemical composition of essential oil, mineral elements and antioxidant activity in Pulicaria Undulata (L.) C. A. Mey from Iran Mehdi Ravandeh1, Jafar Valizadeh2*, Meissam Noroozifar1 and Mozhgan Khorasani-Motlagh1 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, P. O. Box 98155-987, Iran. 2 Department of Biology, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, P. O. Box 98155-987, Iran. Accepted 17 March, 2011 Pulicaria undulata (L.) C.A. Mey is a medicinal plant used to treat inflammation. It is also an insect repellent and herbal tea. In this study, concentration of macro minerals (that is, Ca, K and Mg) and micro minerals (major and trace elements) (that is, Fe, Cu, Na and Mn) and P, were estimated in Pulicaria undulata…

Nano Technology in Oil Industry

Introduction Nanotech applications & Nanoparticles have been successfully used in drilling mud for the Last 40-50 years. Recently the other disciplines of the oil industry, such as exploration, primary and assisted production, monitoring, refining and distribution, are approaching nanotechnologies due to its immense Potential for Confronting challenges, performance improvement & cost. Especially in ultra-deep water and artic environments, Severe reservoir conditions (high-temperature and high-pressure formations), nonconventional resources of energy,Heavy oils, tight gas, tar sandsreservoirs) Present nanotech applications in oil industry: Most of the major oil and service companies, such as BP, ConocoPhillips, Shell, Total and Schlumberger.done research in exploiting nanotechnologies to improve oil and gas production. Developing subsurface micro- and nanosensors that could be injected in oil and gas wellbores…