Industrial relations is a set of phenomena operating both within and outside the workplace, concerned with determining and regulating the employment relationship. Whether it is social, legal, political or economic.
APPROACHES TO INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
There is no one ‘right’ approach; each emphasizes a particular aspect of industrial relations and taken together they can provide a frame work for analyzing and understanding the diversity and complexity of industrial relations (e.g. the complexity of the employment relationship)
ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE- J.H. RICHARDSON
Economic perspective is the process of getting workers together for the purpose of production.
Legal perspective is a system of rules and regulations. These rules are of two (2) kinds:- a)Substantial rules
Social perspective is the study of people in an organization communicating or interacting in the doing of work in relation to some contract whether written or unwritten. Since there has been constant conflict in the relationship among people in the system. C.J. Margerism stated that IR is conflict itself.
This is seen as a reflection of not just organizational demands and tensions but also, and perhaps more importantly, the economic and social divisions within society between those who own or manage the means of production and those who have only their labour to sell. So therefore, it is a continuous, unavoidable and synonymous with political and social conflict. The pluralistic perspective is criticized for maintaining an illusion of a balance of power between the various interest groups which hides the reality
of imbalance in social power; despite claims from one of its supporters, Clegg, that it does accommodate shifts in the aims and interests of the diverse groups, and in the distribution of power between groups.
A COMBINED PERSPECTIVE
Theory by: J.T. Dunlop
IR is the sub-systems of a wider society. It consists of actors rules and regulations, a hierarchy of managers, workers, specialized governments agencies and an environment that comprises technological factors, market, and budgeting constraints.