In human nature, personality is explained in various ways depending on the environment an individual lives in. Personality is the traits and characteristics of an individual unique ways of expressing his or her feelings towards any situation in his or her social circle. The learning theory is explained as the process in which humans learn and how they adapt to permanent behavioral change in the environment. Humanistic and existential theories are the holistic approach to psychological health and human behavior toward meaning, values, personal experience, and self-actualization. The knowledge of both humanistic and existential and learning theories gives a board insight into human nature and personal reaction and growth in the external environment of one’s personality (University of Phoenix, 2013). The learning theory is examine how an individual’s reacts to his or her personal environment and the behavior conditions which one displays in his or her environment.
B. F. Skinner theory of behaviorism explains how a person is held accountable for his or her actions with the illusion of self-control. Skinner argues the choice of free will or genetics shape the environmental factors of reinforced behaviors. He believed that people are a product of his or her environment. Skinner believed that positive reinforcements strengths an individual’s behaviors by providing a sense of consequences and rewards for the reinforcement (University of Phoenix, 2013). Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory redefines the assumption human functioning is a combination of genetics and influences from the environment. Bandura proposes humans are capable of self-efficacy from using his or her external and internal instincts. Bandura believed through personal strengths influences the way a person reacts to different situation that can affect a person’s behavior. Observation learning is proposed in Bandura’s theory.
He believed that people learn from his or her environment when placed in various situations (University of Phoenix, 2013). Learning happens in a cause and effect relationship in the environment. The cause would be the reaction to a behavior in the environment and the effect would be the consequences an individual faces from the reaction to the situation in the environment. Individuals are placed in similar experiences to determine what the outcome will be in the situation. The individual becomes passive and simply react to the experience he or she is going through. Cognitive learning explains how a person’s rational thinking and behavior determines a person’s complex responds to a behavior from individual thought process (University of Phoenix, 2013). The humanistic approach is implemented when an individual has reached self-fulfillment or potential growth. The way a person reacts in situational behavior depends on the level of potential behavior one is capable to responding too. Maslow suggests the driving force in a person motivation and personality needs is called holistic dynamic theory.
A person’s motivation is created from another need to another need in personal growth and self -actualization. Maslow believed a person needs are being met when he or she satisfy a lower need (University of Phoenix, 2013). Carl Rogers believed that humans evolved from a conscious mind through formal tendencies. Rogers agreed with Maslow that individuals motivated toward self-actualization of a person’s personal growth in his or her environment. Rogers’s person-centered theory focused on a person’s constructive and personal directions in his or her life. With self-awareness, a person is free to make choices and participate in his or her own personalities. He suggested that people focused on his or her current subjective understanding rather than the unconscious motive interpretation of the current situation. Rogers’s relationships encourage psychological growth within individuals (University of Phoenix, 2013).
The existential theory explains that individuals are responsible for his or her own choices that he or she makes in a formal or informal decision. Rollo May believed that anxiety and informal decisions are the factors in human motivation. The anxieties come from an individual’s mental state of mind and are prone to avoid anxiety. May’s believed that individuals show move to his or her own destiny (University of Phoenix, 2013). The learning theory is an accumulation of learned behavior that will increased through a person’s life span. Individuals stem from situational behaviors to gain possible reinforcement and reward from the decisions he or she makes. Skinner believed the environment shaped a person’s personality from the environment he or she resides in. The environment influences a person’s character and traits to make decisions to gain personal rewards. The humanistic and existential theory moves toward fulfillment and the realization of an individual growth for his or her needs (University of Phoenix, 2013).
Rollo May believed a person have to maintain a healthy relationship with others, but in the end will be alone. Abraham Maslow insists through self-actualization a person will gain the feelings of others, but will not rely on others for self-esteem or personal gain. Rogers believed through a caregiver responds to promote psychological growth in a child. Humanism emphasized on the interpersonal relationship that is essential to personal development in a person’s personality. In interpersonal relationship, a personal will have confidence in social gatherings he or she holds close to them. Bandura proposed an individual learning comes from observation learning from a person’s observation in making a critical or informal decision (University of Phoenix, 2013). From the learning perspective side, people associate with others to receive reinforcement or rewards from social interactions. People continue to form associations with others to reinforce a particular behavior from others around them.
People make inform judgments in protecting his or her environment from natural forces or people trying to inflict personal harm towards them. When reinforcement is not applied, people will maintain a healthy relationship through personal association to gain reinforcement. People learn from his or her environment and if is placed into a different environment, then the individual will have to adjustment in a new situation. By taking a person what of his or her comfort zone, the individual will able to adapt of different environment needs and make decision accordingly. The theory relates more to nature verses nurture when an individual needs are being met for personal growth and development in his or her new surrounding environment (University of Phoenix, 2013). The existential theory concentrated on the free will of an individual to make any decision he or she chooses. The theory drives on the sense of well-being and to be in the world to maintain a healthy psychological growth. If a person decides to on making bad choices, he or she will have to answer to them.
The choices a person makes show his or her character and personality traits of how to make an inform decision. He or she wants let any other person cloud his or her decision-making and will rely on his or her own judgment. The results can be either constructive or deconstructive role in the decision making process (University of Phoenix, 2013). Social constructivism is defined as behavior or knowledge constructed from person’s behavior based on new ideas a person gain from past and present knowledge or experiences. Bandura believed a person learns from experience and through observation personal growth and development was shorten. The beliefs are essential component of personal development that depends on the social environment others within another’s environment. The genetic factors contributed to the social influences by others in constructing his or her own personality in significant individuals. The action did not encourage the behavior, but changed the events of the behavior.
The social relationship changes the perspective of one’s view within another’s environment and emotional state of mind. The personal development will be what the individual gain from his or her learning experiences (University of Phoenix, 2013). Maslow laid the foundation in understanding the characteristics of a healthy and normal person. His theory of self-actualization gave the perception of reality, straightforwardness, and genuine characteristics of an individual’s personality traits. Many individuals have the need for solitude and independence to appreciate the ordinary things in life. People need to indulge in social interests, seek social experiences, maintain a few interpersonal relationships, and have an idealistic sense of humor to properly functions in today society (University of Phoenix, 2013).
Learning theories is the human learning that is results from behavior and personality in an individual’s environment with internal considerations. Humanistic and existential theory is the tendency for internal drive of self- predetermination. The behavior viewed as a movement toward actualization and situational behavior as reinforce or reward. The aspect of interpersonal growth with each theory discussed. The perspectives affect by situational behavior in distant characterizations of human nature. The personal development of an individual when placed in a social setting and the decision- making he or she encounter in his or her environment. The diversity of reasoning related to thought and understanding of human nature from a psychological point of view.
Colman, A. M. (Ed.). (2010). Humanistic psychology. In Oxford Reference Online. Retrieved March 7, 2015, from http://www.oxfordreference.com/pub/views/home.html McLeod, S. (2007). Carl Rogers. Simply Pychology. Retrieved March 7, 2015 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html University of Phoenix. (2013). Theories of Personality. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, PSY405 website.