Carl Jung was born on July 26, 1875 in a small town in Switzerland, named Kessewil. As a young boy he was surrounded by his well-educated family members, (a few of them were clergymen). His fathered encouraged him to start reading Latin texts at the very young age of six. This was the beginning of his long interest in language and literature. With this interest, he went on to create one of the best-known psychological tests in the world, the word association test. When World War I came around, Jung had become very interested in analyzing his dreams.
These analyzes would be the foundation of the most interesting theories of personality that the world has ever seen. While Jung was analyzing his dreams, he began to break down the psyche into three different parts. The first part of the psyche is the ego, or the conscious. The second part of the psyche is the personal unconscious. This part holds anything that not is presently conscious, (but could be). These items could be memories that are recalled easily or have been suppressed for some reason. The final part of the psyche is the unconscious (or the psychic inheritance).
This is a reservoir of our experiences as a species, or in a sense, knowledge we are all born with. It is a strange part because we can never be directly conscious of it. It also influences of our experience and behaviors (especially the emotional ones). We only about the collective unconscious by examining its influences. Some examples of where the collective unconscious is love at first sight, deja vu, and near death experiences. Archetypes are the contents of the collective unconscious. These are the unlearned tendency to experience things in a certain way.
They have no form of their own. They act as an organizing principle on things we say or do. He once said that archetypes are like black holes in space, you only know it is there by how it draws matter and light to its self. There are several types of archetypes. The mother archetype is the ability to recognize a certain relationship. We come into the world ready to want a mother, to seek a mother, to seek her, to recognize her, and to deal with her. Even if we do not have an actual mother, we project this archetype onto another person.
If your mother did not satisfy your needs, you are more likely to search for comfort in a church or try to connect with the motherland. Mana refers to our spiritual power. He says that just because you dream about a sexual item, does not necessarily mean you are sexually frustrated. Phallic symbols do not usually refer to sex at all. Farmers who can make a connection between the penis and strength, semen and seed, and fertilization and fertility use them. The shadow represents sex and life instincts. It represents the pre human animalistic past.
Our only two goals were survival and reproduction. It was a time when we were not self-conscious. The shadow represents the dark, amoral side of the ego (it is where the evil in us is stored). It does what it wants and acts as a garbage can for the parts of ourselves that we cannot admit to. The persona is your public image. It is the mask that you put on before you present yourself to the world. It is the “good impression” or the “false impression” we use to manipulate people’s opinion and behaviors; it could be mistaken for our true natures. The final archetype is amina and animus.
This is the role of the male or female that we must play. Jung hypothesized that we are all bisexual in nature really. In the womb, we are unisex, and when we are born society gradually molds us into men and women and we follow the differing expectations that are placed on us. This archetype is responsible for most of our love life. There are three principles for the dynamics of the psyche. The first is the principle of opposites, which states that in order to have a concept of good; you must have a concept of bad. This opposition creates the power of the psyche.
The second is the principle of equivalence, which is the energy created from the opposition is “given” to both sides equally. If you acknowledge the other side, you grow as a person, but if you ignore you will develop a complex. A complex is a pattern of suppressed thoughts and feelings that cluster around a theme provided by some archetype. The final principle is the principle of entropy. It states that oppositions come together and power decreases over time (similar to the concept of diffusion). Younger children tend to be extreme, so they have a lot of energy, and they tend to swing from one extreme to another.
Whereas adults tend to transcend, they use the process of rising above their opposites, they see both sides of who they really are. By using the transcending practice, we find our true selves. This is the ultimate goal of any human being. Jung also came up with the idea of synchronicity. This is the occurrence of the two events that are not linked casually but are meaningfully related. This concept has two parts: 1. Mechanism- things that work in through cause and effect (as in the past determines the future) and 2. Teleology- we are lead on by our ideas about a future state.
Jung was the first psychologist to combine these ideas. Jung was also the first person to divide people into two different categories: introverts and extroverts. Introverts are people who prefer their internal world of thoughts and feelings. Extroverts are people who prefer the external world of things, they like people and activities. Introverts are more in touch with themselves, so they are considered more mature, but cultures prefer extroverts. Jung says that we all prefer our own type. Jung created a system of classifying our functions.
The first function is sensing. This means that you receive information by using your senses. You generally look and listen to get to know the world. Sensing is considered to be an irrational function because you use perception rather than judgment to gather information. The second is thinking, evaluating information or ideas rationally or logically. Thinking is a rational function because it involves decision making or judging, rather than simple intake of information. The third function is intuiting, the perception that works outside of the usual conscious processes.
Intuiting is irrational or perceptual because it comes from the complex integration of large amounts of information. The final function is feeling, a matter of evaluating information by weighing one’s overall emotional response. This is a rational function, but not in the usual sense of the word. We all have these functions (just in different proportions). We all have a superior function (the one that we prefer and is the best developed in us), a secondary function (we are aware of it and use it to support our superior function), a tertiary functions (slightly developed but conscious), and an inferior function (which is poorly developed).
Jung owes a lot of his success to Freud (his mentor) who he met in Vienna in 1907. It is rumored that after they met, Freud canceled all his appointments for the day and they talked for 13 hours straight. Freud saw Jung as the crown prince of psychoanalysis, but Jung was never entirely sold on Freud’s theory. He had ideas that diverged from Freud’s views, especially on religion. Their relationship began to dissipate in 1909, during a trip to America. They were having some fun analyzing each other’s dreams when Jung noticed that Freud seemed resistance to his analyses.
Freud said that they had to stop because he was afraid that he would lose his authority if they continued. Jung felt rather insulted. Jung’s theories have been met with many criticisms. Some said that in Jung’s theory personality, and life in general, seems ‘over-explained”. Others say that his theories attract students who have difficulties dealing with reality but there are some positive things about his theories. For instance, the Myers-Briggs test are less threatening than other kind of tests (because they don’t classify you as good or bad) and they encourage people to become more aware of themselves.
The idea of archetypes have aided in the analysis of myths and fairytales. They capture some of the basic pieces of our self-expression. Jung also opened our eyes to the differences between child development and adult development. Children tend to actively seek diversity. He claims that they learn by a matter of differences, a matter of learning more and more “things. ” They tend to unravel the world. Adults tend to search for integration (transcending opposites). They search for connections between things and find the purpose of it all.
They tend to put the world back together again. Over the years, Jung has made many contributions to the field of psychoanalysis and has made a notable impact on psychology. His concepts of introversion and extroversion have contributed to personality psychology and have influenced psychotherapy. One day while he was talking to one of his patients his advice led to the formation of Alcoholic Anonymous, a program that has saved countless lives. Works Cited 1. Webspace. ship. edu/cyober/jung. html/ 2. Psychology. about. com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/jungprofile. html.