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Personality psychology Essay

Stone – Mother – J sometimes thought of her as two people: one nice, sense or humor, other ruthless, conniving Experience with stone similar; 7 yrs, would sit on a stone, then trade perspectives with the stone, imagining that he was the stone being sat upon by the boy, would have difficulty telling if he was the boy or the stone Would later decide he was two people also: young school boy, innocent, his consciousness; old man, unconsciousness.

Manikin – 10 yrs, carved man from ruler; would write things that troubled him down in secret language, ceremony to put in box with man, relieved anxiety Phallis – 4 yrs, in dream he descended into a chamber in ground that had a throne in it, seated on it was a tall object resembling a phallus, dream terrified him, he later decided it was another aspect of Christ, an unfriendly part Throne – Father was pastor, J asked questions about faith, not satisfied with answers, father seemed to have a hollow faith, just saying the words, all dogma.

J was leaving school, saw sun on a cathedral, had sudden thought that he was going to have a terrible thought that he had to prevent or he would damn his soul, in torment for days, but finally allowed thought – giant turd fell from sky and hit cathedral – message was that God was not all the trappings, important stuff was personal relationship with person and God.

These experiences suggested that there were internal parts of him that knew things that the rest of him did not Would often follow his intuitions or dreams – changed career from archeology to medicine b/c of dream Occult – odd things happening, ex. woke with a headache to find one of patients put bullet in their head … Biographical Cont’d Adulthood Married 1903 Freud’s successor “creative illness” love triangle LIBIDO Creative, biological life force (energy) for personal growth As biological needs become easier to satisfy, energy is used for more spiritual problems How much energy we devote to a problem determines its value to us Married 1903.

Freud’s successor – wrote favorable articles about F’s theories, gave accounts from his own practice to support it, started writing to F, met him, became very close friends, pres of F’s international psychoanalytic association But J not convinced all behaviors and problems rooted in sexual issues, and also dream analysis – F and J were analyzing each other’s dreams, but F refused to tell J about all of the details of his life to help J understand what the dreams might symbolize, b/c F was afraid to give up authority Illness.

– J almost 40, after break with F, had a period of internal uncertainty, self-absorbed, preoccupied with finding truth, And had an affair: Love triangle – with a younger woman, involved her in family life and professional life This is when he developed own personality theory (sometimes called “Analytical Psychology”)and also dream analysis – F and J were analyzing each other’s dreams, but F refused to tell J about all of the details of his life to help J understand what the dreams might symbolize, b/c F was afraid to give up authority Illness – J almost 40, after break with F, had a period of internal uncertainty, self-absorbed, preoccupied with finding truth, And had an affair:

Love triangle – with a younger woman, involved her in family life and professional life This is when he developed own personality theory (sometimes called “Analytical Psychology”) PRINCIPELS Principle of Equivalence (1st law of thermodynamics) Total amount of psychic energy is fixed Principle of Opposites Every concept has a polar opposite Principle of Entropy Tendency to equalize energy within a system Principle of equivalence:

Total amount of psychic energy is fixed Similar to F’s ideas – only so much energy, and if you spend it on one thing it will not be available for other things Opposites- Every concept has a polar opposite : masc/fem; introvert/extrovert; animalist/spiritual If one part develops, usually at expense of other part Goal of life should be to seek a balance between the two Principle of entropy – Tendency to equalize energy within a system energy decreases over time (lots energy as child, less energy as older adult), and as we age, opposite sides of our personalities get more in balance.

When we are young, the opposites will tend to be extreme, adolescents tend to exaggerate male-female differences, Plus, adolescents often swing from one extreme to another, being wild and crazy one minute and finding religion the next. As we get older, most of us come to be more comfortable with our different facets. We recognize that we are all mixtures of good and bad. We are less threatened by the opposite sex within us and become more androgynous. Components of Personality 1. Ego (conscious) Responsible for sense of identity.

Thinking, feeling, remembering – conscious awareness functions of daily living 2. Personal Unconscious Material that was once conscious but was repressed or forgotten or not vivid enough to make an impression Complex Personally disturbing, interrelated feelings, memories, and impulses that are usually repressed, which would inhibit person growth; i. e. , mother complex Development of the word-association test Ego (conscious)

Very similar to F’s idea of the ego Responsible for sense of identity and for thinking, feeling, remembering, everything we are conscious of Carries out functions of daily living 2. Personal Unconscious – material that was once conscious but – was repressed or forgotten – or not vivid enough to make an impression Complex – Personally disturbing, interrelated feelings, memories, and impulses that are usually repressed, and tied to a particular theme (archetype) i. e. , money complex, mother, sex, father, power… which would inhibit person growth;

A problem because it ties up too much energy, and prevents personal growth Development of the word-association test – taps into unconscious Test – list of a 100 words, person respond as quickly as possible with another word Kept track of things like failing to respond, repeating word, misunderstanding word, responding more than once, laughing, 3. Collective Unconscious Most mystical, controversial concept.

Collective experiences from human evolutionary past, inherited Archetype Inherited predisposition to respond to certain aspects of the world, formed because humans have a natural tendency to make myths ________________________ Archetypes PERSONA One’s public self (mask, social roles) Inflation of the persona If Persona given too much importance, stifles other components of personality Collective Unconscious Most mystical, controversial concept.

Collective experiences from human evolutionary past, inherited Collective unconscious same for all people, regardless of culture Archetype Inherited predisposition to respond to certain aspects of the world, formed because humans have a natural tendency to make myths Readiness to produce a certain myth after a certain experience This is most important and influential part of psyche Lucas Skywalker – Hero Obe Wan Kenobe – Good Father Darth Vader – shadow (“dark side of the force”) Princess Leigh -.

Virgin Yoda – wise old man ______________________________________________________ PERSONA One’s public self (mask, social roles), Exact role depends on person’s circumstances Inflation of the persona If Persona given too much importance, stifles other components of personality Everyone has need to play certain roles in society Some people think of their entire psyche as being persona, which will cause problems since we are more than just our roles ANIMA & ANIMUS ——>.

Shows males/females how to interact with opposite gender; an “ideal” male/female Anima: Female component of the male psyche Animus: Masculine component of the female psyche SHADOW ———–> Darkest, deepest part of the psyche, animal instincts (immoral, aggressive, passionate), but also spontaneity, creativity Projected outward: monsters SELF ———-> Attempts to harmonize all the other components Life’s primary goal ANIMA & ANIMUS Shows males/females how to interact with opposite gender; an “ideal” male/female Anima:

Female component of the male psyche Causes men to have feminine traits and also to know how to respond to women (intuition, tenderness, sentimentality, gregariousness) Ex. the virgin, the harlot Animus: Masculine component of the female psyche (independence, aggression, competitiveness, adventurous spirit) Again, balance should be sought – diff tends to be emphasized when we are younger, but we let more of each quality exist when we are older SHADOW Darkest, deepest part of the psyche, animal instincts (immoral, aggressive, passionate).

but also spontaneity, creativity Projected outward: monsters SELF Attempts to harmonize all the other components Life’s primary goal THERAPY —-> Goal: to bring archetypes into consciousness and then integrate into personality; i. e. , use them Self-realization: harmonize components in psyche ________________________ Stages of Development Stages defined by where the focus of libidinal energy was ________________________

Eight Personality Types Self-realization: harmonize components in psyche J thought that mental illness caused by either personal unconscious overcomes collective unconscious (psychosis), or Personal unconscious totally cut off from collective unconscious ______________________________________________________

Stages defined by where the focus of libidinal energy was Childhood (from birth to adolescence) Early: Energy directed toward survival skills; eating, walking After age 5, more energy devoted to sexuality Young Adulthood (from adolescence to about age 40) Energy directed toward work, marriage, children, community Middle Age (from about age 40 to the later years of life) Most important phase Energy directed toward finding a meaning in life Many of his patients’ complexes from lack of religion Ideally, focus switches from self concerns to world concerns ____________________________________________________

Two general attitudes Direction of energy flow Extroversion: Sociable, outgoing, interested in external events Introversion: Quiet, imaginative, more interested in ideas 4 Functions of Thought 2 Attitudes X 4 Functions of thought = 8 Types EXTROVERTED THINKING How person sees the world, interprets info (how you deal with the world) Either concentrated on how we make decisions, or on how we get information Four functions of thought thinking – feeling (making judgments/decisions, how do you make judgments?

; rational) Feeling: Determines an object’s worth to the individual (emotions) Thinking: Tells what an object is (logic, reason) sensing – intuiting (getting information; irrational) Irrational b/c occurring independently of thought Sensing: Detects the presence of objects (details) Intuiting: Provides hunches when no data are available (big picture) Interested in facts about objects external to the self Logical Fixed rules Represses emotions and feelings Neglects friends and relationships Extroverted thinking E (energy directed outward) T (making judgments/decisions; rational)

Tells what an object is (logic, reason) Interested in facts about objects external to the self Logical (The truth exists out there & must be followed (objective reality) Fixed rules (Expects others to follow rules) Represses emotions and feelings (Dogmatic, cold) Extroverted Feeling Extroverted Sensation Extroverted Intuition Extroverted feeling E (energy directed outward) F (making judgments/decisions; rational) Determines an object’s worth to the individual (emotions) Responds to reality emotionally, but only as appropriate to situation Appropriate to situations, like at theatre, tv, to a joke; tries to adjust emotions to situation (might seem feigned to others)

Respects authority/tradition Frequent among women Extroverted sensation E (energy directed outward) S (getting information; irrational) Detects the presence of objects (details) Emphasizes sensory experience Concerned with facts and details, “realist” Not particularly interested in analysis of situation Extroverted intuition E (energy directed outward) N (getting information; irrational) Provides hunches when no data are available (big picture) Concerned with possibilities for change in the external world, rather than with the familiar Unconcerned with logic Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Sensation Introverted thinking I (energy directed inward)

T (making judgments/decisions; rational) Tells what an object is (logic, reason) Interested in ideas and inner reality Inflexible, cold Pays little attention to other people Subjective reality Follows own thoughts regardless of others, rejects criticism (only internal reality has relevance) Jung was this type Introverted feeling I (energy directed inward) F (making judgments/decisions; rational) Determines an object’s worth to the individual (emotions) Subjective truth is the only truth Follow own thoughts and feelings Few friends Introverted sensation I (energy directed inward)

S (getting information; irrational) Detects the presence of objects (details) Creates own meaning for sensory experiences e. g. , musicians and artists Introverted Intuition ________________________ Myers-Briggs Type Indicator _______________________

Explaining human behavior Introverted intuition I (energy directed inward) N (getting information; irrational) Provides hunches when no data are available (big picture) Explore implications of internal events Often distant

Daydreamer ______________________________________________________ Includes: Extravert/Introvert scale Thinking/Feeling scale Intuiting/Sensing scale Added: Judging/Perceiving scale organized, plans vs. improvising 16 types _____________________________________________________ Causality: attempt to explain adult personality in terms of prior experiences (past) Past important for explaining behavior, but only influence – push Teleology human behavior has a purpose (future)

Also important, purpose of behaviors, future – pull Synch – two events occur independently, but combined together they have meaning for the person Research Techniques ________________________ Contributions ________________________ Criticisms Word-association test Study of psychotic patients Self-study of dreams and visions Wide, cross-cultural study of symbols, rituals, etc. _______________________________________________

Optimism about human nature Importance of future Importance of search for meaning as a motivator Use of multiple cultures ___________________________________________________ Nonfalsifiable Unclear, contradictory Emphasis of irrational and spirituality Use of unscientific methods Freud vs. Jung Similarities —————-> Differences ————-> Libido Principle of Conservation of Energy;

Principle of equivalence Ego Unconscious Stages of Development Causality Dreams Libido Unconscious Stages of Development Causality and Teleology Pessimistic/Optimistic about human nature Religion Alfred Adler Organ Inferiority Feelings of Inferiority Striving for Superiority Vailghlers as if policy Fictional Goals and Lifestyles Early Influences Early Influences Illnesses as a child Illnesses as a child Poor student at first Poor student at first Older perfect brother Domineering, socialist wife Domineering.

Socialist wife Interest in everyday problems and people Interest in everyday problems and people Freud Weak Organs Compensate to improve weakness Emphasize other functions to make up for weak one Overcompensation Conversion of a biological weakness into a Conversion of a biological weakness into a strength Emphasis shifted from physical to Emphasis to subjective inferiorities.

All people born inferior The desire to overcome inferiority is the primary motivator in life Masculine Protest, Inferiority Complex Life Goal seeking superiority Striving for superior or perfect society Superiority Complex All experience of reality come through our senses.

Humans have a natural tendency to give these sensations meaning As if applied to lives of individuals: applied to lives of individuals, Because of past experiences world views created Social Interests Mistaken Lifestyles Where do mistaken lifestyles to come from Safeguarding strategies Methods of Research Three major problems or goals in life: Occupational tasks: advance society Societal tasks: cooperation/division of labor Love/marriage tasks: procreation Mistaken Lifestyle ,,any lifestyle not aimed at socially useful goals Lifestyle types Ruling type dominant type Getting leaning Avoiding type Healthy lifestyle must be socially useful Physical inferiority Spoiling,pampering ,Neglecting.

Used by neurotics to save self- -esteem Excuses Symptoms created to explain short- -comings comings Aggression Deprecation, Idealization: use of unrealistic standards to judge others Solicitude: giving advice to point where you believe : giving advice to point where you believe others cannot live w/o you Accusation: blame others for own short comings Self-accusation self- -harm w/ the goal of gaining harm w/ the goal of gaining attention Birth order , oldest to youngest First memories ,,Dream analysts Evaluating Adler’s Theory Empirical Research Criticisms Falsifiability Overly simplistic and optimistic Contributions Social variables Influential.


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