Personality is a trait that every one possesses. What are the people’s thoughts, how do they feel, and how does people behave and what causes people to contain these predisposition are questions asked by personality theory and their research. Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology have united to form as a subject matter in Psychology, and personality has not yet found the unity. In this paper we will analyzes the strengths and limitation, compare and contrast, and explains the underlying assumptions of the theories of psychologist Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud.
The paper suggested that the force in these underlying assumptions exist in their clearness that allows common people to understand these difficult concepts. The paper also discusses the disagreement with deterministic versus free will, even though Jung and Freud were biased toward determinism, which means that the environment or genetics predetermines individuals behavior and life. Carl Jung broke away from Freud and developed his own theory known as the Analytical Psychology, which resided on the assumption that the supernatural phenomena that will influence everyone’s lives.
Jung believed, “that each of us is motivated not only be repressed experiences but also by certain emotionally toned experiences inherited from our ancestors” (Feist, & Feist, (2009). Jung also believed that the inherited images that he called the collective unconscious which involved aspect that people have never gone through individually but that has passed down from our ancestors. When one can reach and understand self-realization, he, or she has reached one of the most exclusive archetype. Archetypes are elements of the collective unconscious that has been highly developed.
The only way one can reach self-realization is by conquering the balance between different types of conflicting forces of personality. Jung’s theory is a list of opposites. “People are both introverted and extraverted; rational and irrational; male and female; conscious and unconscious; and pushed by past events while being pulled by future expectations” (Feist, & Feist, (2009). Based on Jung’s theory conscious are images that can only be sensed only by the ego, although the unconscious elements are not connected to the ego.
Jung’s concept of the ego is more restraining than Freud’s. Jung’s believed the ego is the main point of consciousness but not the center of personality. However, it must “be completed by the more comprehensive self, the center of personality that is largely unconscious” (Feist, & Feist, (2009). In analytical psychology consciousness have a minor role and is over stress on escalating on individuals conscious psyche that can lead to psychological inequity.
Individuals who live a happy and healthy life could be in touch with their conscious realm and permit him, or herself to practice and acknowledge his, or her unconscious self, and strive to accomplish individuation. Personal unconscious is referring to all subdued, forgotten, experiences that have happened from earlier times. It includes infantile memories and desire, forgotten events, and events that have been seen from below the verge of the consciousness. Individuals form his, or her personal consciousnesses through experiences therefore, make it unique to all of us.
Pictures of past events that has retained in the personal unconscious can be easily evoke, whereas are hard to remembered and others are way off pass the consciousness. There is no mistake Carl Jung was considered to be one of the most significant, most multifaceted, and most contentious Psychological Theorists. Jung’s theorist main focuses is on setting up and a promotion on relationship between conscious and unconscious processes. One of Jung main concept is individuation that means personal development that includes starting up a connection between the Ego and the Self.
The ego is the core of consciousness, and the self is the main point of the psyche, combining with the conscious and the unconscious. For Jung it is hard to disconnect the two from each other and both are two aspects of an individual system. To acquire individuation one must go through a process of developing wholeness by incorporating all the different parts of the psyche. The Self is considered to be one of the most important personality archetype and hard to understand.
According to Jung the self is the core of the archetype, the archetype of psychological order the wholeness of personality. The self is the unity of the conscious and unconscious that represents the synchronization and the balance of the contrasting components of the psyche. The self is the main control functioning of the entire psyche in an assimilated way. The conscious and the unconscious do not have to work against each other but rather work together as a team to form an entirety of the self. Sigmund Freud on the- other- hand is known for his Psychoanalysis theory.
The interesting part about his theory is that when he discussed about sex and aggression, which is still popular today. His theory became so popular that he had recruited a devoted follower that many of them even glorify him as a legendary and lonesome hero. Freud could acquire a full knowledge of how human personality work through his clients, ability to analyze his personal thoughts, and his massive reading in different sciences and humanities. Because of these familiarities, it has enabled him to collect essential information for the development and the progression of his hypothesis.
To Freud, assumption is form after studying and he is always making changes to his concept of personality in the last 50 years. Freud argued that psychoanalysis cannot be “subjected to eclecticism and disciples who is deviated from his basic ideas soon found themselves personally and professionally ostracized by Freud” (Feist, & Feist, (2009). Freud depended more on “deductive reasoning than on rigorous research methods” (Feist, & Feist, (2009), He collected data from observation on his patients, who are mostly from upper-middle and upper classes.
He did not collect a large amount of data, or did he do his observations under a controlled conditions. He uses the case study approach more over than any other methods, and developing a hypotheses after the facts are known. Freud discovery of the unconscious and his persistence on his beliefs that people are mainly motivated by drives that they are not aware of, is his greatest contribution to personality theory. According to Freud the mental life are categorize into two different levels; the unconscious and the conscious.
The unconscious contains two separate levels; the unconscious proper and the preconscious. In Freud’s theory the three level of conscious are used to assign the process and location. Freud believes in determinism over free will, according to his model of the psyche, in which he belief in instincts, and the perception of the five psychosexual stages and he theorized that the mental stage consist of three sections; the conscious, unconscious, and preconscious, which is the id, the ego, and the superego.
The ego and the superego are unconsciously fighting with each other and the id is supposed to help establish individual’s personality. In addition Psychoanalysts believed that Thanatos and Eros that is the life and death instincts are to be an influential unconscious aspect in shaping individuals behaviors. Even though Jung and Freud may have shared a tight relationship for many years and Jung had learn very much from Freud but he does have some disagreement with Freud’s theories and developed his own theory called analytical.
Both men may focus on the concept of the unconscious as a way of defining dreams, but Jung are more drawn to more on multi-layered concept of the subconscious. What separate the two Psychiatrists apart relates to religion. Freud believed that religion is a way for people to escape and it is misleading and it should not be publicize, whereas, Jung believed that religion has an important role for individuals’ safety and is the most important aspect for individuals who, are starting to discover individuation, which is discovering and accepting self as a whole.
Jung also believed that religion is a way of communicating with all types of people because even though religion maybe different but the archetypes and the symbols are the same. The thought of an unconscious is commonly accepted by everyone everywhere but yet Jung or Freud believed that after a clarification, maintaining treatment is necessary. Modern Psychiatrist is grateful to both theorists for their involvement to psychiatry and for opening the doors to future Psychiatrist and the development of Personality Psychology Rference Feist, J. , & Feist, G. (2009). Theories of personality (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw Hill.