Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems include human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap).
The World Health Organization states that:
“Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word ‘sanitation’ also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. The term sanitation is applied to a wide range of subjects such as: Improved sanitation – refers to the management of human faeces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of theMillennium Development Goal on sanitation, by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation.
On-site sanitation – the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and Imhoff tanks. Food sanitation – refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety Environmental sanitation – the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control. Ecological sanitation – an approach that tries to emulate nature through the recycling of nutrients and water from human and animal wastes in a hygienically safe manner
san·i·ta·tion noun \ˌsa-nə-ˈtā-shən\: the process of keeping places free from dirt, infection, disease, etc., by removing waste, trash and garbage, by cleaning streets, etc.
Health Impacts of Sanitation
For any social and economic development, adequate sanitation in conjunction with good hygiene and safe water are essential to good health (Mara, Lane and Scott and Trouba 1). Lack of proper sanitation causes diseases. Most of the diseases resulting from sanitation have a direct relation to poverty. The lack of clean water and poor sanitation has caused many diseases and the spread of diseases. Sanitation is very important in order to keep good health.One of the most significant diseases that arise from poor sanitation is diarrhea. Deaths resulting from diarrhea are estimated to be between 1.6 and 2.5 million deaths every year (Mara, Lane and Scott and Trouba 2). Most of the affected are young children below the ages of five. Other diseases that are caused by poor sanitation include schistosomiasis, trachoma, and soil transmitted Helminthiases.
Poor sanitation accounts for almost 50 percent of underweight child since it has a direct link to diarrhea. Children suffering for diarrhea are more vulnerable to become underweight. According to Mara, Lane, and Scott and Trouba (3), about 26 percent acute respiratory infections occur in children who are malnourished, which has a direct link to diarrhea. Sanitation is a serious issue that is affecting most parts of the world especially the developing countries. On a global scale, the most affected are children who in most cases lose their lives due to diseases caused by poor sanitation. Major initiatives need to be set up if the MDG goal on sanitation is to be achieved by 2015.
• WHAT IS SANITATION?
• Sanitation literally means measures necessary for improving and protecting health and well being of the people. Sanitation is any system that promotes proper disposal of human and animal wastes, proper use of toilet and avoiding open space defaecation.
• WHAT IS DEFAECATION?
• It is the practice of passing out excreta
• WHAT IS OPEN DEFAECATION?
• It is the practice of passing out excreta in open field and indiscriminately. This excreta often finds it way into sources of drinking water and food and may lead to disease.
A drop can kill: One gram of excreta can contain;
1,000 parasites cysts
100 parasite eggs
WHY SHOULD I STOP OPEN DEFAECATION?
• To prevent the spread of excreta-related diseases such as typhoid, cholera, diarrhoea and dysentery.
• WHY MUST I USE THE LATRINE ALWAYS?
• To prevent the spread of excreta related diseases
• WHY IS 2008 DECLARED THE INTERNATIONAL YEAR FOR SANITATION?
• Sanitation has been neglected for a long time. This has contributed to high levels of sickness and death especially among infants and children. More investment is required in hygiene and sanitation.
• CAN POOR PEOPLE AFFORD TO BUILD SAFE LATRINES?
• Yes, poor people can build latrines using locally available materials WHAT ARE THE SAFE SOURCES OF WATER?
• Protected springs and boreholes, treated pipe borne water and protected hand dug wells
• WHY SHOULD I DRINK WATER FROM SAFE SOURCES ONLY?
• To prevent diseases like guinea worm, cholera, diarrhoea, typhoid and to remain healthy.
• WHY MUST WE LIVE IN A CLEAN AND HEALTHY
• To prevent hygiene and sanitation related diseases and enjoy good health.
HOW CAN WE ENSURE A CLEAN AND HEALTHY
• Undertake individual and collective actions by sweeping, cleaning, clearing drainages, proper disposal of human and animal wastes, proper use of toilet and avoiding open space defaecation
Good personal hygiene is one of the most effective ways to protect ourselves, and others, from illness. This means washing your hands, especially, but also your body. Good habits can help control body odour and bad breath.
One of the most effective ways we have to protect ourselves and others from illness is good personal hygiene. This means washing your hands, especially, but also your body. It means being careful not to cough or sneeze on others, cleaning things that you touch if you are unwell, putting items such as tissues (that may have germs) into a bin, and using protection (like gloves or condoms) when you might be at risk of catching an infection.
Personal hygiene, such as bathing, is very much dependent on the culture in which you live. In some cultures, it is expected that you will wash your body at least every day and use deodorants to stop body smells. Other cultures have different expectations.
Body smells are caused by a number of factors working in combination, including: Chemicals in sweat, including pheromones, which are made by the body and sexually attract (or repel) other people. Wastes excreted through the skin, such as metabolised alcohol. The actions of bacteria that live on the skin and feed on dead skin cells and sweat. Unwashed clothes, such as underwear and socks.
Most infections, especially colds and gastroenteritis, are caught when we put our unwashed hands, which have germs on them, to our mouth. Some infections are caught when other people’s dirty hands touch the food we eat. Hands and wrists should be washed with clean soap and water, using a brush if your fingernails are dirty. Dry your hands with something clean, such as paper towels or hot air dryers. You should always wash your hands:
After using the toilet
Before making or eating food
After handling dogs or other animals
If you have been around someone who is coughing or has a cold.
Personal hygiene for women
The vagina is able to clean itself no special care is needed, other than washing the external genitals. Do not put anything like douches into the vagina, as the delicate skin can be damaged. Here are some personal hygiene suggestions for women: Menstruation – wash your body, including your genital area, in the same way as you always do. Change tampons and sanitary napkins regularly, at least four to five times a day. Always wash your hands before and after handling a tampon or pad. Cystitis – is an infection of the bladder. This is a common condition for sexually active young women. Urinating after sexual intercourse can help to flush out any bacteria that may be in the urethra and bladder. Thrush – some soaps and detergents can irritate the skin of the vagina, and make thrush infections more likely. Some people find that they often get thrush when they use antibiotics. Use mild soap and unperfumed toilet paper. Avoid tight, synthetic underwear. Try cotton underwear, and change regularly. There is medical treatment for thrush, so talk to your doctor or pharmacist.
Personal hygiene for men
A build-up of secretions called smegma can form under the foreskin of uncircumcised men. If you are uncircumcised, gently pull back the foreskin when you have a shower and clean with water. You can use soap if you like, but make sure you rinse it off well.
Good dental hygiene includes regular brushing and flossing. Bad breath can be caused by diseases of the teeth, gums and mouth, such as infections. Most people have bad breath first thing in the morning because saliva is not made while you’re asleep. Some foods that can cause bad breath include garlic and onion. Mouth washes, mouth sprays and flavoured chewing gum can make your breath smell better for a while, but if you have a health problem in your mouth, you need to see your dentist.
When travelling overseas, take special care if you’re not sure whether the water is safe. Suggestions include: Drink only bottled water.
Don’t use tap water to clean your teeth.
When you wash your hands, make sure they are totally dry before you touch any food. Don’t wash fruit or vegetables in unsafe water.
If you have no other water source, make sure the water is boiled before you drink it by holding it at a rolling boil for one minute. Make sure any dishes, cups or other utensils are totally dry after they are washed.
Where to get help
Things to remember
Good personal hygiene is one of the most effective ways to protect ourselves and others from many illnesses, such as gastroenteritis. Wash your hands regularly, especially before preparing or eating food and after going to the toilet.
1. refers to the maintenance of healthy and hygienic conditions, free from disease-causing organisms? Answer: SANITATION
2. it is very important to ensure the __________ of the guest because it is our duty to serve them and make them satisfied of our work? Answer: HEALTH
3. it means free from disease-causing organism and other harmful contaminants which are often not visible to the eyes? Ans: SANITARY
4. it should be properly covered, so that the bacteria wont lay on it to prevent a deseases to a certain costumer? Ans: GLASSES AND WATERJUG
5. it is the most effective ways to protect ourselves and others from illness? Ans: GOOD PERSONAL HYGIENE OR PERSONAL HYGIENE
6. what do you call to the organization that focuses on health of every individual? Ans: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
7. Area should be protected from _________________, regularly fumigated to eliminate pests? Ans: PEST INFESTATION
8. Housekeepers are advised to protect themselves from contamination by wearing and using the _____________? Ans: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENTS