Self-managed learning is an individual person or to find different ways of learning, which may be in the society they live or work in an environment that is diverse. Self-managed learning is also about setting goals for learning by assessing the learning goals and how to achieve that goal. People learn new things such different cultures of people, behavior, personality, cognitive, etc. Individuals can learn things not only in the classroom but also through friends, newspapers etc. Self-managed learning opportunity for people to come up with their own strategies for learning, although sometimes it takes a short time to learn something that might be possible for them to have can pass the exam, or completing a project, it is important for people to acquire knowledge as long as the current environment facing the challenges posed by technological development who need knowledge they can use them in your personal life and your career.
Lifelong learning is all about continuous learning individuals can contribute to the professional context. Individuals may have personal assessment as a means of lifelong learning by assessing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to their (SWOT analysis). (James, 2014) Both 2 Long life and self- managed learning are important to each individual. Self-study, access is really the foundation for acquiring knowledge. Choose a suitable learning can maximize capacity and gather knowledge faster. Access to and understanding of knowledge is a huge advantage for personal growth, personal excellence productivity will lead to broad career. Appropriate plans put in place by making a plan of action, monitoring it, set the date, review it regularly will help students achieve their goals.
Although, they need help from colleagues by accepting the opinions and judgments that will help them to learn, individuals need to understand the stages of the career development plan for the purpose of having a clear goal of what they want to achieve from learning self-management. It is a self- managed development can enhance long life. Today, when the world is integration, how to understand and choose a best way to learning to maximize the learning capacity is very important in the competition to get better positions to benefit themselves and their organizations, even is a national interest. Here I’ll write down clearly about my learning abilities, strengths and weaknesses of my learning ability to apply to your organization.
II. Task 1: Evaluate approaches to self-managed learning:
1. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle
Figure 1. Kolb’ ELC Model
Having developed the model over many years prior, David Kolb published his model about learning styles model in 1984. This led to the related terms such as experiential learning theory of Kolb (ELT), and learning styles of Kolb inventory (LSI). In his publications – especially his 1984 book “learning experience: Experience as the source of Learning and Development ‘Kolb acknowledges the early learning experiences of others in the 1900s, including Rogers, Jung, and Piaget. In turn, the learning style model Kolb and experiential learning theory is now recognized by scholars, teachers, managers and trainers works as really profound concepts fundamental to our understanding and explaining the behavior of human learning, and towards helping others to learn. (businessballs, 2014) Kolb’s learning theory laid out four different learning styles (or preferences), which is based on a learning cycle of four stages.
Kolb includes this “cycle of learning” as a central theoretical principles of their learning experience, usually calculated according to the four-stage cycle of learning, which “experienced immediate or concrete” offer a basis for “observations and reflections”. These’ observations and reflections are assimilation and distilled into “abstract concepts” producing new implications for action which can be “actively testing” times in turn creating new experiences. Here we are going to learn specifically about Kolb’s ELC model:
Concrete Experience: Concrete experience is the first stage in 4 stages of Kolb’s ELC. It’s about when we done any activities, after that we have experiences. Experience will create based on done-activities. In this stage, individual or organization will be implemented or do activities. Base on activities and implementation, the experiences will be created. For example, Organizations open many actual work experiences or work rotation will help their employees be more realistic experiences. Also, for those who are in this stage, they are not primarily interested in theory; instead they want to treat each case as unique and learn best from specific examples. Reflexive Observation: “When the learner consciously reflects back on that experience” (Many, 2014, p. 15). That means when the experience from stage 1 came, we have to review again, summarize all the task of activity and make sure it’s true. The ‘reflective observation’ factors derived from the analysis and judgment of events and discussions about learning and teaching that you take with your mentors and colleagues.
People naturally think about their experiences in teaching, especially when they are new to it and less confident in their abilities or when an already painful experience. All of us went out to tell his lesson “went well or severe, in a visual sense. This could be called” common sense reflection ‘. But how do we know it is good or bad and what is good or bad about it? We need to speak our thoughts in a systematic way for us to remember what we think and build on the experience for the next time. This example may be through the self-reflection or evaluation of your next event by keeping a log or journal. It can also include feedback from students, peer observation of teaching (e.g., advice or opinions of your peers), moderation of assessment, examiners commented on the outside. All of these can be aggregated to give an overall reflection of your practice. Reflected in itself, though, is not enough to promote the learning and career development.
Twenty years of experience may include twenty years of teaching the same content in the same way! Unless we act according to our reflections about themselves and about the opinions of others, there is no development took place. Abstract Conceptualization: “Is where the learner attempts to conceptualize a theory or model of what is observed” (Many, 2014, p. 15). In this stage, the definition start to forming, the place that all the concepts have to be specification. To plan what we would do different next time, we need to do? – In addition to our reflection on our experience – to be informed of educational theory for example, through the reading of relevant literature on teaching and learning or by attending staff development members or other activities. Therefore reflect a middle ground, aggregate and analyze the theory of action in the past. It allows us to conclude about our practice. Active Experimentation: “Is the learner trying to plan how to test a model or theory or plan for a forthcoming experience” (Many, 2014, p. 16). When all the concepts, definitions are formed and specific, the learning activity will be active.
The conclusions we form from the stage ‘summary overview our’ then form the basis by which we can change the plan – ‘Operation experiments. ‘Experiment Activity’ then starts the cycle again when we make changes in the actual teaching us to create a specific experience is then followed by reflection and sees review to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the changes… After activities are active, we have experience again and go back to the stage 1 of Kolb’s ELC, continue and expand the cycle. That’s how Kolb’s ELC work. For example, A singer vocal training, when done the first song, he looked back and do not feel good because it is not appreciated when the song be uploaded online in the internet. Singer began thinking about the theory learned vocal and start over, with the stylized rhythms. Finally, the singer then develops a plan and has successfully recorded a next song. In addition, Kolb believes that we cannot do both variations on a single axis at a time (such as thinking and feeling). Learning styles of our products is a choice of two decisions.
It is often easier to see the construction of Kolb learning styles in a two-by-two matrix. Each learning style represents a combination of two favorite styles. The chart also highlights Kolb term for the four learning styles; diverging, assimilating, and converging, containing:
Doing ( Active Experimentation)
Watching (Reflexive Observation)
Feeling (Concrete Experience)
Thinking (Abstract Conceptualization)
Accommodating: The Accommodating learning style is ‘hands-on’, and relies on intuition rather than logic that mean: people who use other person’s analysis and want to participate in an approach of practical experience. They are attracted to the challenges and new experiences, and plan implementation. They often act on instinct rather than rational analysis. People with a learning style will tend to rely on others to contain more information than carry out their analysis. This learning style is common in the general population. Diverging: These people can look at things from different perspectives. They are very sensitive. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. They are best viewed in the specific situation of different perspectives. Kolb called this style “divergence” because people perform better in situations requiring idea generation, for example, brainstorming.
Those with a diverging learning style have broad cultural interests and like to collect information. They are interested in people, tend to be imaginative and emotional, and tend to be strong in the arts. Those with divergent styles like teamwork, listening with an open mind and get a personal response. Converging: Those with a converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical problems. They prefer technical tasks, and less concerned with others and personal aspects. Those with a converging learning style are best to use the actual search for ideas and theories. They can solve problems and make decisions by finding solutions to questions and problems. Those with a converging learning style attracted many technical tasks and problems rather than social issues or individuals.
A converging learning style allows the expertise and technology. Those with a style convergence want to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications. Assimilating: The assimilating learning preferences is a reasonable approach brief. The idea and concept is more important than people. These people require good clear explanation rather than practical opportunity. Predominates in-depth understanding of information and organize it in a clear logical format.
People with learning style assimilation is less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts. People with this style are more attracted to the more theoretically sound approaches based on practical value. This learning style is important for efficient information and science careers. In formal learning situations, people with this style prefer to read, lectures, exploring analytical models, and have time to think things through.
2. 7 Approaches to Learning
There’re 7 ways to approach knowledge below:
Learning through Research: Is a person who is able to use internet to read any things available that relevant with their demand. In addition, learning through research also is a person that likely to read books or documents to approach to knowledge. The advantages of this kind of learning is not waste time to learn how because everything already available on the internet and books. Their disadvantages are some time they will get too much information and waste time to classify. Learning from others: Coaches and mentors both work one-on-one. Person who’s tend to learn from precursor’s experience but in better way. With this style of learning, they will get the low rate of risk and comfortable to work. Besides, the disadvantages of learning from other are: They are always depending on mentor’s ideas, their creativity is not been developed. Some mentors come from the other environmental with different lever of knowledge and people who are learning from other won’t understand, and apply the wrong way.
Secondments: Is a person who approaches knowledge from traveling, changes in the work environment, work rotation… Because of the continuity change of environment, their advantages are received more experiences, knowledge and adaptment. However, the disadvantages are lack of team work because they couldn’t belong with a group or a team or maybe they get sick because not suitable with the environment. Interview: It’s conducted in order to achieve a specific purpose for at least one of the practices involved, such as information gathering, problem solving or behavior change. Interview provides a vision about ourselves to know who we are. What our position? Interview helps them to know clearly about them self, know clearly about self-awareness. Obliviously, Not only advantages but also the disadvantages, the disadvantages is the information from interview can be inaccurate.
Seminars and Conferences: Is the form that learning with teacher or professor. It usually held for groups of 10-50 individuals (a kind of meeting). Seminars and conferences help them to improve their working in group skill, communication skill, presentation skill because many home work for their team. The disadvantages are conflict of knowledge between teacher/professor and students, sometime is waste of time. Internet, Intranet, Extranet: Distance learning, learning through networking. Students can study online courses to obtain more knowledge outside of school. Because of the internet, extranet, intranet so the works/ knowledge are very convenient and cheaper than learning in class with direct teacher but much if unverified information, out dated, irrelevant information are the disadvantages of this way to approach knowledge. New groups and forum: Is the kind of learning that we open a thread then discuss online a problem or situation with direct post and direct reply of members in group.
When people talking, the brain start to storming and many ideas have given out, we can choose one of them. Sometime the ideas getting conflict and bias… There are 7 approaches to learning and knowledge mentioned above, depends on each person, task, resource, and environmental organizations. Each environment, different jobs have different ways of learning to adapt to the situation. In Vietnam with amore harsh environmental conditions more than the other country. The existence of inferior technology and very difficult to identify the sources of open knowledge. In the US and some European countries, students are funded 100% of tuition, even health insurance from birth to 18 year-old.
Also, they are equipped with a lot of open source knowledge and especially completely free. They also promote the academic life of students by offering an innovative fund, all creativity and invention will be using public money of government. However in Vietnam, many knowledge donors but not really common, most students are still very difficult to study and develop themselves. Excelled students tend to learn in a better environment to develop them; their dedication to foreigners led to Vietnam has been severely brain drain. Source: (See survey table in appendix).
To against the brain drain and improve our own self-study, the following is suggested models that may help students develop Vietnam’s own self-study: With the popularity of social networking, the groups and the forums, you should use them as a learning tool instead of gaming.
Figure 3. Self-Constructed study model 2
In Vietnam, mostly self-taught students through the internet so this model will maximize the learning ability and can reach to the most students in Vietnam; Based on hcmuaf.edu site, the percentage of students use the internet in Viet Nam up to 99% (Tran Minh Tri, Do Minh Hoang, 2013). We will share key, close documents (the documents must pay to be read) on a group or forum. On piracy, the State of Vietnam doesn’t have enough ability to find a hidden group or a hidden topic to share information, discuss and exchange.
You make a great ideas, questions, and people will talk, share relevant documents and receive the request. But it will take time to select a member’s idea, but the idea of the document will be firmer. You buy one document but can get back 10 documents related to the work you want to learn, study. Creating a community with the persons that have the same passion for learning and personal development will help you learn effectively in the environment of Vietnam. Source: (See survey table in appendix).
III. Task 2: Propose ways in which lifelong learning in personal and professional contexts should be encouraged.
1. Continue Professional Development (CPD)
What’s CPD Means?
CPD stands for Continuing Professional Development. It refers to the process of tracking and recording the skills, knowledge and experience you can be both formal and informal as you work, beyond any initial training. It is a record of what you experience, learn and apply. This term is often used to mean a physical directory development portfolio of your document as a professional. Some organizations use it to mean a plan for training and development, which I would argue is not exactly true. This article is about the CPD is a process of recording and reflecting on learning and development. (Allen, 2014)
What its functions?
CPD process is to help you manage your own development on an ongoing basis. Its function is to help you record, review and reflect on what you learned. It is not a tick box document recording the training you have completed. It is wider than that.
What are the difference between training and developing?
These terms are often used interchangeably, although there are differences. As a rule of thumb, the training is formal and linear. It’s to do with learning how to do something specific, related to skills and competence. Training can be as simple as using a computer application and as complex as learning how to become a pilot. Developers often do not have a formal and widely applicable, giving you the tools to perform a variety of things and is related to the ability and capacity. It is related to the evolution from basic tips to understanding how higher, adult or complex. Also it can be expanded your range of transferable skills such as leadership, project management or organizational information.
2. Honey and Mumford learning style
Learning styles include a variety of theories for the differences in modeling natural systems or personal habits of collecting and processing information in the learning situation. A core concept is that individuals differ in the way we learn. The idea of individual learning style originated in the 1970s, and has great influence education. Proponents of the use of learning styles in education recommend that teachers assess learning styles of students and adapt their classroom methods to suit the learning styles of each best student.
Although there is ample evidence that individuals express preferences for how they want to receive information, some studies have found value in the use of learning styles in education. Critics say there is no evidence that the identified learning styles of each student. To understand the learning styles, we have four learning styles based on Honey and Mumford theory as follows: (Mobbs, 2013)
Definition: Activist involving themselves fully and without bias in new experiences. They enjoy the here and now, and I’m happy to be dominated by immediate experiences. They are open-minded, not skeptical, and this tends to make them enthusiastic about anything new. Their philosophy is: “I’ll try anything once”. The activists are learning by doing. Activists need to get their hands dirty, to jump in with both feet first. There is an open-minded approach to learning, involving them fully and without bias in new experiences.
Career: Because of their characteristics is preferred adventurous, not afraid of risk and dare to accept the challenge to succeed, they work with the high-risk nature, requires brainstorming and experience, based on the characteristic of openness in big 5 traits model3 , for example as Strategy Director.
Why is Strategy Director?
Strategy Director is a job that requires creativity and pioneering. Strategy Director huge impact to the reputation of a company or a corporation. Similar with openness in big 5 traits, openness very excited to be experienced with whatever news; they want to be a pioneer. When creating a new strategy, the risk of failure is big, but if successful, it will bring the not-small benefits when our company/ group is a pioneer company/group, a leader company/group in a particular field.
Way to enhance: From above, to manage risks and develop good career, Activist should use the interview-learning to know their exact location and their own ability clearly, from that then personal development and minimize risk.