High percentage of LET passers contributes greatly to the accreditation of education programs of a certain college or university. This, aside from adding zest within the vicinity of school academe, is the reason why schools offering education courses crave for high percentage of LET passers (Philippine Journal of Education, 2005). Today, prospective teachers must clear a series of hurdles to obtain and maintain a teaching certificate – one of which is to pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers (Libman, 2009). States use licensing to ensure that the only qualified teachers can be hired. This builds anxiety not only among examinees but more so far schools who turn out prospective teachers with different majors. Obviously, the National examination for teachers stirs competitive against, since it augurs possible employment, salary or appointment upgrading ranking consideration, and acceptance to the halls of DECS.
In addition, implications permeate school standards and pride for garnering honors from percentage passers (Philippine Journal of Education, 2005). The performance scores in the Licensure Examinations for Teachers reflect the abilities of the teacher examinees. Thus, having low percentage of LET passers indicates low quality pre-service teacher education in the country (Ramota, 2011). Palatino, who is a young education graduate from the University of the Philippines, feared that poor performance in LET may lead to further slide of the educational standards of the educational standards of our country. If this alarming trend will not be aided, he said, the country will be seeing more classrooms with no teachers in our schools despite an oversupply of teacher education graduates who end jobless or else volunteer teachers in remote areas (Ramota, 2011).
Performance of education graduates in the Licensure Examinations for Teachers predetermine not only the competence of the graduates but so as the institutions where they have acquired their diplomas. This serves as the major key in accrediting education programs. Having low percentage of LET passers may lead to changing of educational programs or worse, closing of the educational programs. Hence, the researchers conduct this study to find the relationship between the students LET performance and standard and competence of the said institution. Moreover, to develop an intervention program that would help obtain standard results in the LET.
Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework
This paper is anchored on Joe Wholey’s model of program evaluation (1987) and the Education Conceptual Model. Like systems and organizational theories, Wholey’s model of program evaluation describes the characteristics of faculty and students and the extent to which curricular activities and fiscal resources influence the educational process and subsequent effectiveness in goal attainment. Wholey defines a program as a set of resources and activities directed toward one or more goals. The linkage of resource expenditures, program activities, immediate outcomes, and ultimate goals directly relates to SDSSU and its program’s performance on the Licensure examination for Teachers. If SDSSU program resources are available, then qualified faculty will be recruited and retained to provide the necessary curricular instruction and learning activities. Given the appropriate faculty to develop and implement the curriculum and activities, students will be provided an opportunity to develop the required knowledge, skills, and behaviors appropriate for entry-level practice as teacher practitioners.
If the appropriate curriculum and activities are implemented, then graduates will demonstrate the desired outcomes expected at the entry level for Licensure tests. If these learning activities and outcomes occur, then progress will be made toward the SDSSU program goals and the ultimate goal of the teaching profession. The ultimate goal of College of Teacher Education programs is to provide competent teachers imbued with ethical values and ideals in a humane environment supportive to the national thrust for social transformation.
Four teacher education program components with key predictor variables for each are identified. First, program resources (total program expenditures) must be adequate to ensure the achievement of the learning goals and outcomes. Second, there must be sufficient faculty (student-to-faculty ratio) with the necessary qualifications (degrees earned, teaching experience) to influence program processes and outcomes. Third, the curriculum (didactic, laboratory, and professional practice hours; comprehensive examination) must support the entry-level competencies of professional practice and the achievement of learning goals and outcomes. Fourth, in order to graduate and enter professional practice, students (mean cumulative college GPA on admission) must be evaluated on the ability to demonstrate competencies measured on the Licensure Examination for Teachers.
Taking and passing the LET is the ticket to enter teaching profession which is the desire result of education students. Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) is the professional board examination given by Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) to determine who are to be allowed to teach and who are not (http://eduphil.org/how-to-pass-the-licensure-examination-for-teachers-let.html).LET performances in terms of passing scores are often perceived as the scale in measuring the quality of education of schools offering teacher education. According to Daniel Goldhaber (2012) University of Washington researcher, “licensure test performance is clearly not a silver bullet. Licensing tests are usually paper and pencil tests of subject matter knowledge and on occasion, pedagogical knowledge.” Multiple researches having the same findings as his, argues for a much more comprehensive system for assessing teachers to determine their preparedness to enter the classroom as sole practitioners (National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2012).
Basis for an intervention program.
Basis for an intervention program.
Level of accreditation of teacher education programs.
Relationship of LET performance and level of accreditation in teacher education.
Level of accreditation of teacher education programs.
Relationship of LET performance and level of accreditation in teacher education.
SDSSU performance in terms of passing percentage in Licensure Examination for Teachers
SDSSU performance in terms of passing percentage in Licensure Examination for Teachers
Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the study.
The first table shows the profile of SDSSU in terms of their performance in LET. The second table shows the accredited education programs of SDSSU and their levels of accreditation. The third table shows the basis for an inspired LET performance. Statement of the Problem
The researcher seeks to study the performance of SDSSU in the Licensure Examinations for Teachers.
Specifically, the researcher would like to find out the following:
1. What is the performance of SDSSU in terms of passing percentage in Licensure Examination for Teachers? 2. What is the level of accreditation of teacher education programs in Surigao del Sur State University? 3. Is there a significant relationship between students LET performance and the level of accreditation of Surigao del Sur State University campuses? 4. What are the problems met in the teacher education programs to attain the better LET performance in pursuit for quality education? 5. What intervention program shall be crafted based on the findings of the study? Null Hypothesis
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the LET performance of the teacher education graduates and the level of accreditation in the teacher education programs.
Significance of the study
The following individuals are deemed to benefit largely on this study. School administrators. This paper would help the school administrators to become more motivated in administering better curriculum and courses that are relevant in achieving high passing percentage in LET. This would lead to the improvement of standards of the institutions. Faculty. This paper would remind them that their part as faculty is very crucial and relevant in moulding new generations of would-be-teachers.
This would encourage them to always do their job honestly, sincerely, and passionately and to redesign their teaching strategies, if needed, in order for them to facilitate maximum learning effectiveness and produce highly competent and surely LET passer students. Students. This paper would help them realize their role as an important aspect in acquiring competence and standards of their institutions. Thus, would drive them to do well in their studies in order for them to bring pride and happiness to their college or universities. Community. If the individuals aforementioned would be able to realize the importance of their roles in developing a more equipped, qualified, and reliable who would benefit most.
Scope and limitation
This study focuses on the performance of teacher education graduates of SDSSU in the Licensure Examination for Teachers. It will be conducted at SDSSU during the second semester of school year 2012-2013. The monitoring is to be administered to the five campuses of SDSSU namely: Cantilan, Lianga, San Miguel, Tagbina, and Tandag campuses.
Definition of terms
The terminologies used in this study are defined operationally. Accreditation. Accreditation is a process in which certification of competency, authority, or credibility is presented. Organizations that issue credentials or certify third parties against official standards are themselves formally accredited by accreditation bodies (such as PRC); hence they are sometimes known as “accredited certification bodies”. The accreditation process ensures that their certification practices are acceptable, typically meaning that they are competent to test and certify third parties, behave ethically and employ suitable quality assurance. Competence.
Competence refers to the quality of being well qualified. It is the quality of having great facility and being able to perform and facilitate achievement or accomplishment. Education. Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people sustain from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts. It is the formal process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills, customs and values from one generation to another, e.g. instruction in schools.
Institution. An institution is any structure or mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given human community. Institutions are identified with a social purpose, transcending individual human lives and intention by mediating the rules that govern cooperative human behaviour. The term “institution” is commonly applied to customs and behaviour patterns important to a society, as well as to particular formal organizations of government and public services.
Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET). Licensure Examination for Regulation Commission (PRC) to determine who should be allowed to teach schools in the Philippines. Performance. Refers to the accomplishment of a given task measured against present known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In a contract, performance is deemed to be the fulfilment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract. Profile. Is a brief description of the characteristics of something, where in my study, are the characteristics of Surigao Del Sur State University main campus in terms of their percentage of LET passers and the accreditation levels of the different education programs that they are offering.
Student. A student is a learner, or someone who attends an educational institution. In its widest use, student is used for anyone who is learning.
RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE
Effective Teachers are what each classroom needs. But what makes a teacher effective? How can we identify effective teachers from those who are not? Are licensure examinations enough to assess the quality of teachers? Passing the licensure examination is often perceive as an indicator of qualified and effective teachers. But according to the researchers from the Southeast Centre for Teaching Quality (2003c), licensure examinations are not enough to measure the competence among teacher candidates. They concluded that in order to assess competence among teacher candidates, multiple methods should be used. This should include student work samples and the demonstration of new knowledge and skills known to reflect the core competences of highly qualified beginning teachers. This thoughts gained support from a study commissioned by the National Research Council (2001), the role of licensure tests in improving teacher quality, as cited in the study of Wilkerson and Lang (2004) concluding that even a set of well-designed tests is inadequate to measure all of the prerequisites for a competent beginning teacher.
The researcher of the National Research Council also recommended that states use multiple forms of evidence in making decisions about teacher candidates and use licensure tests only as a part of a coherent developmental system of preparation assessment, and support that reflects the many features of teacher competence. Addressing some of the issues on teacher effectiveness is through a voluntary certification process, which has been offered by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). This is a certification process where teachers who are considered to be highly effective can demonstrate, and gain recognition for, their knowledge and teaching skills. And despite a lack of evidence on its efficacy in identifying effective teachers, there has been a continuous growing participation in the NBPTS.
Many policymakers in various states and school districts also view this certification as a signal of teacher quality. In fact, NBPTS certified teachers receive recognitions and financial incentives (Goldhaber and Anthony 2004). Citing evidence, Goldhaber of the University of Washington and Urban Institute so with Anthony of Urban Institute describe the result of the first large-scale study, based on a unique data set from North Carolina, assessing the relationship between certification of teachers by National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) and Elementary-level student achievement. Findings indicated that NBPTS is successfully identifying the more effective teachers among applicants, and that NBPTS-certified teachers, prior to becoming certified, were more effective than their non-certified counterparts at increasing student achievement (Goldhaber and Anthony 2004).
In the middle of these findings, the American Educational Research Association Panel concluded, based on the available evidences they have analyzed, that licensure in the field gained by university-based teacher preparation is an indicator of effective teaching and student achievement. Before getting to taking licensure exams and applying for certifications, teachers-to-be first have to finish education courses and undergo teacher preparation. Most of those who wanted to be effective teachers prefer to study at state colleges and universities having passed the National Accreditations since it is perceive that nationally accredited state colleges and universities caters teacher education programs that are capable of moulding and producing effective teachers.
Many education graduates in the provinces are not passing the LET (Ramota 2011). Palatino, as cited in Ramota (2011), opined that LET examinees performance shows the low quality of pre-service Teacher Education in the country. He stated that many Teacher Education institutions are producing half-baked graduates who add up to the bulk of the LET non- passers and unemployed or under employed Teachers. He also stated that even these schools are being turn into mere for profit diploma mills rather than as training ground for future mentors. When Colleges of Education seek National Accreditation for their teacher education programs, there are a variety of obstacles to their success. But according to Adams (2004), not all of these obstacles are a reflection of program quality since accrediting bodies at the national or state level have different and at times conflicting requirements.
This could even be more damaging. Evaluation systems may be scheduled to be phased in too rapidly, without clear guidelines. It is likely that the programs they are evaluating will be forced to suffer the consequences of this management. This situation is a contributing factor in the undeserved negative perceptions of teacher education programs. Though colleges of education should be accountable for the quality of the teachers they produce, the accrediting agencies should be accountable for the clarity and straightforwardness of the process. Whether a teacher candidate will be effectively teaching or not depends on the teacher preparations he or she had. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (2012) stressed to components that are critically important in the teacher preparation: the teacher knowledge of the subject to be taught, and the knowledge and skills on how to teach that subject.
Research and common sense tell us that subject matter knowledge is necessary for effective teaching. But there is a second part of the equation: knowledge and skills on how to teach is also a must. Effective teachers understand and are able to apply strategies to help students increase achievements. They understand and apply knowledge of child and adolescent development to motivate and engage students. They are able to diagnose individual learning needs. They know how to develop a positive climate in the classroom in order to make it a stimulating learning environment. The scholars of the National Academy of Education of America also supports that content knowledge does not adequately prepared teachers for the challenges they will faced in today’s classrooms, where teachers need to be prepared for learning differences and dis abilities that are prevalent (). Moreover, and American Educational Research Association Panel of nationally recognized scholars analyzed the empirical evidence relevant to practices and policies in pre-service teacher Education in the US.
Findings specific to education programs that produce successful teachers include: (1) collaborative arrangements between university programs and local school districts—known as professional development schools (PDSs)—have a positive impact on k-12 students in measurable ways such as increase in standardized test scores; (2) planned, guided and sustained interactions with pupils within early field and student teaching settings is important; (3) seven of eight studies reviewed found positive correlations between licensure and student achievement, especially in mathematics education (). These ideas stated above only proves that the quality of schools, the instructors of the teacher education programs, so with the educations programs, plays a very critical role in the education process since they are the one who mould the aspiring educators to be globally competitive and effective teachers.
Gradual learning is very important for any student, be it in any field. But there are many more things in a student’s brain that we often forget, and herein appears the difficulty. There are students who faced learning problems and it’s not even their fault. For a school student, life is loaded with studies. Though it is not possible for each one of them to cope up with their studies, they often get nervous, frustrated and ends up mugging their lesson which is very harmful. There can be factors, as many as every student in this world, that affect student achievements. According to Shahin (2012), the student’s community is affected by lots of problems such us lack of quality of education, the threat of unemployment, absence of adequate opportunities, nepotism and a host of many such factors disheartening the students. She added that the lack of proper guidance by the parents and unawareness of the student in choosing the right career lead to their doom. Similarly, Suvajit (2009) believes that all these predicaments faced by students can only be resolve if every school and college recruits a qualified students councillor to guide the students in times of their problems. He cited recession as an example since it has caused huge dearth of jobs enabling the students to avail their desired job.
And so, many of these students go on for further studies but are often puzzled about which course to study and from which college. And because of the lack of proper guidance, they often take hasty decisions for which they have to repent later. While Koski and Weis (2004) called on the state to analyse its own contents standards and curriculum frameworks to develop a complete basket of educational resources, ranging from laboratory equipment and sophisticated measuring instruments to well- stocked libraries and media centres, and conditions that all children should have an opportunity to achieve the state’s standards. But there have been a proposal cited by The Journal Report: Big Issues in Education of US (2012). The proposal stated that all (US) children should meet the same academic standards, essentially proposing a nationalized system of education.
This issue gathered contrasting ideas of some influential educators in US including Chester E. Finn Jr., president of the Thomas B. Fordham institute and chairman of the Hoover Institution’s Koret Task Force on K to 12 Education, who argues in favour of national standards, and Jay Greene, head of the department of education reform at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, Ark, who makes the case against natio nal standards. According to Finn Jr., as cited in a journal community The Journal Report: Big Issues in Education of US (2012), one way to ensure that young people would develop the skills they need to compete globally is to set clear standards about what schools should teach and students should learn—and make these standards uniform across the country.
He stated that the issues plaguing American education—low achievement, poor technical skills, too many dropouts, etc.—are nationwide, and so is the challenge of economic competitiveness and that these were caused by the disorderly, dysfunctional way of handling academic standards for students. Though Finn Jr. believed that an effective education system also requires quality teachers, effective administrators and other vital elements, make them the same everywhere is important. A rigorous national standard is a need for a mobile society like theirs where a fourth-grader in Portland, Maine, may find herself a fifth grader in Portland, Ore. He also added that United States of America is no longer a country where children born in rural areas spend their entire lives there. They need and are expected to be ready for jobs in other parts of the land. And they won’t have any problem in adjusting to their lesson since every school is following a national standard (The Journal Report: Big Issues in Education of US, 2012).
On the other hand, Greene as also cited in a journal community The Journal Report: Big Issues in Education of US (2012) contended that different youngsters need to learn different things in different ways. He stated that such uniformity would only make sense if: 1) there was a single best way for all student to learn; 2) we knew what it was; 3) we could be sure the people running this nationalized education system would adapt that correct approach; and 4) they would remain in charge far into the future. But this isn’t how things are. He believed that there is no consensus on what all student need to know and that different students can best be taught and assessed in different ways.
Greene then cited Canada and Australia as examples of large and diverse country like US with significantly stronger students’ performance as measured on international test. Yet neither have national standards, tests or curricula and added Greece and Thailand as examples of lower achieving countries though they have national standards and curricula (The Journal Report: Big Issues in Education of US, 2012). Libman (2006) also cited some negative consequences of standards-based testing such as narrowing the diversities in teacher education programs, homogenizing the characteristics of the teaching force, which hinder candidates from entering teaching and causing shortages in qualified teachers.
* This chapter presents research methods employed in this study. It contains the research designs, sampling techniques, research environment, validation of instruments and statistical tools used.
* Research Design
* This study will utilize the descriptive survey method using researcher made questionnaire as a main tool in gathering the data. It will also utilize documentary analysis to verify the data gathered from the survey.
This paper shall utilize the universality of Teacher Education graduates during the past three school years. It will also consider the total population for the faculty and administration under the education program. For the student respondents, a 30% student shall be utilized using Stratified Random Sampling.
This study will utilize a researcher-made instrument which will be subjected through content validation. It shall be tried out in the private tertiary education offering teacher education program. The items which are vague need revision to suit to the levels of respondents. When the validated instruments are ready, it shall be administered to the SDSSU having Teacher Education programs offering.
Data Gathering Procedure
A permit to conduct the study shall be secured from the university president, and shall be furnished to the campus directors and concerned respondents and the campus offering Teacher Education programs. the pursuance of this study, the researcher will use researcher-made questionnaires that would show the relativity of the data subject to this study. The questionnaire shall be administered personally by the researchers to ensure the reliability of data of this study. After administration of questionnaire, it shall be retrieved, tallied, analyzed and interpreted and ready for writing the research report.