This research is about the “Perception toward commit suicide among UTAR students”. We want to understand how the UTAR students think about suicide with carry different opinion from different races and gender. We will distribute 100 sheets of the questionnaire to UTAR students based on their races and gender. In this assignment, we will distribute 50 sheets of survey question to male students and 50 sheets for female students. In this questionnaire we also ask about UTAR student’s opinion which is “does suicide makes soreness disappear”? Most of the students answer no, because they think commit suicide cannot help them solve the problem, it just a way to deny from the problem. So they should think positively and find the solution because all problem have their own solution, just see how we view the issues. If we try to commit suicide it just make some trouble to our family because they will to face the society, maybe your neighbor will talk bad word about your family.
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Literature Review
After our searching for whole week, we had found at least 5 academic journals with online source from not only Malaysia, but in other country in Asia too. From these journals and report, we able to have more understanding on suicide rate among several countries in Asia and Malaysia, the pattern, or the frequently used method, and even some of the reason for suicide. Two of the journals published by same organization, which is National Suicide Registry Malaysia, are about the research on Malaysia. One of them is explaining objective and the data collection method for research in NSRM, while another journal explain about what they found, example like stated out the high risk group, and the factor cause suicide, based on the data they collect so far. Another journal we found is not provided by NSRM, but also related to Malaysia. In this research, they concentrate about the race suicide method, and age group of suicide victim, this provide us helpful information that able us to see a more clear picture about suicide in Malaysia.
Other two journals is talking about the research in other countries of Asia, one of them is a research conducted by World health Organization in 2008 regarding the suicide case among countries, while another is a old research that had conduct a similar research, which also the 48 countries, published by University of North Carolina Press in 1965. According to one of the journal we found (Quinney, 1965) even though there was no research conducted in Malaysia that time, but still, it enables us to know that a country economic development level will also affect the suicide rate. The other journals, which we found, had found a similar age group that has high frequency to suicide compared to other age group. The high risk group of suicide is 20-30, which is young adult stage (Hayati & Khairul, 2008; Nadesan, 1999; Hendin et al., 2008).
These were also two journals, which is research on Malaysia, found out that the most common method people use to suicide is hanging, poisoning and jumping from height (Hayati & Khairul, 2008, Nadesan, 1999). The method of jumping off from height and by poisoning themselves cases had been increased, meanwhile hanging themselves has been decreased compared to two decade ago (Hayati & Khairul, 2008). In order to know more about suicide case in Malaysia, it was necessary to do more research within Malaysia for the factor of suicide, since we cannot deny the fact that media influence nowadays has slowly become one of the most influencing factor that increased suicide, example poisoning case had increased since Indian movie had introduced the way of suicide by consuming seed kernel of yellow oleander plant (Nadesan, 1999).
1.2 Research Question
Our purpose of conducting this research is have a better understanding in study 2 main category group of UTAR students towards suicide cases. We decided to focus in both gender and 3 main races and others. We would like to look into Gender differences as our first research question by setting the question “What are the perceptions in gender differences towards suicide cases in Malaysia?” due to the reason that different gender will have different perception on that particular cases and will able to get more opinion and feedback. Besides, we also choose to concentrate in Races which including Chinese, Malay, Indians and others. “What are the opinions of difference races towards suicide cases in Malaysia?” will be our second research question. In this question we would like to find out all the different perception from different races due to culture issue or family background issue to view on suicide cases.
Chapter 2: Method
In this research, our population is on UTAR student’s and we will choose 100 student’s as our sample. From the 100 student’s we will divide into 2 part which are the gender and the races because we are using the stratified sampling method. The definition of stratified samping method is we will dividing the population into groups according to some characteristic (Allan,2009,p.12), for example we will distribute the questionnaire equally to the student’s which is 50 male student’s and 50 female student’s, from the gender we will divide it into difference races. We plan to distribute 50 questionnaire to Chinese student’s, 30 questionnaire to Indian student’s, 10 questionnaire to Malay student’s and other races student’s. After that from the races we will divide it into 2 part which is the gender.
We will use survey question to collect our data because it is the simple instrument to help us gain some data, we create the question by ourselves which is after having group discussion. In this questionnaire, it contain 10 question which incude 9 opended question and 1 closed ended question. We forming the question based on the 4 type of measurement which are norminal, ordinal, interval and ratio(Allan, 2009, p. 7-8). In this survey question it contain 1 ratio question, 4 norminal questions, 3 interval questions and 2 ordinal questions.
Activities| Week (duration)|
The tutor briefly discuss about how to do the assignment and APA format.| Week 1| We start to form a group which is 5 people in the group. We discuss a topic which we interested in and finally we plan to do a topic which is “The Perception among UTAR Student’s toward Suicide”. We also distribute some task among the group members and find some journals that are related with the topic.| Week 2| In week 3, we discuss again among the group members and start to create a questionnaire that is related with our topic. After discussing, we plan to create 10 questions which include open ended and closed ended question.| Week 3| After that, we type the questionnaire and consult with the tutor and let her checks whether the questions are reliable to use or not.
At the same time, we also give her check the journal whether it can be used or not. On the consultation time, she guides and teaches us how to complete this assignment.| Week 4| In week 5, after the tutor agrees with our questionnaire, then we start to print 100 sheet of survey question and distribute it to the UTAR students based on our sample.| Week 5| This week is our critical period which we have to collect all the data and interpret it. We also have to summarize all the data and create a graph to show that we done the entire task.| Week 6| Finally, this week is coming and we should hang in our assignment. Luckily we can do it on time.
Chapter 3: Results
Question 1: Which gender is the highest possibility to commit suicide?
Most of the male respondents think that man is common in commit suicide, while most of the female respondents think that woman is common in commit suicide.
According to the bar graph, the Chinese and Malay respondents think that woman has the highest tendency to commit suicide; while vice versa for the Indian and other races respondents who think that man has the higher tendency to commit suicide. Question 2: Which is the majority races involve in suicide?
The pie charts above show that for male respondents, Chinese has the highest chance to involve in suicide and is followed by Indian. The UTAR male students think that just 10% of Malay will commit suicide and 0% for other races. However, in female respondents’ opinion, they think that 52% of Chinese will involve in suicide cases and is followed by Indian which is 40%. Lastly, only 8% of female students think that Malay will involve in commit suicide and 0% for other races. From this 2 pie chart we can conclude that most of the students think that Chinese is the highest chances to involve in this case.
The bar graph above shows that most of the UTAR students think that Chinese is the majority race that involved in suicide. Indian is the second highest chance to involve in suicide cases and is followed by the Malay. No students choose for the others races because there is only a small population of other races compared to the three major races in Malaysia, so they are not easily involved in suicide cases. Majority of the UTAR Chinese student’s think that Chinese are easily to involve in suicide because they think that Chinese are afraid to lose, so they scared to share their problem with their family members or their friends even though when they faced any problem.
Question 3: Which shows the most common range of age in commit suicide in Malaysia?
Both male and female respondents think that age range between 17 and 21 has the highest tendency to commit suicide, followed by 22-26, 27-31, and then other age range which will be above 31. Age range between 12 and 16 has the lowest vote from male respondents but none from female respondents.
Age range between 17 and 21 has the highest vote from the Chinese and Indian respondents, followed by the age range of 22-26 and 27-31. Age ranges of 17-21, 22-26 and 27-31 get the equal votes from other races. The age range between 27-31 get the highest votes while 22-26 get the lowest votes among the Malay respondents. Others age ranges which are above 31 got the same votes from Chinese and Indian respondents only, but no vote for the age range between 12-16. Question 4: In which condition will caused people have the intension to commit suicide in Malaysia?
Based on the pie charts above, we can conclude that most of the UTAR students will give their idea on people who tend to suicide are due to the relationship issue with a percentage of 34% of male student and 42% of the female student. Besides, it can also clearly show that people do not put the blame on the mass media factor.
According to the report of Hayati and Kamarul from National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM) (2008), they stated all the young male adults will tend to commit suicide due to the reason of being stressed up with the transition to adult roles and relationship issues. It is also the timing in a higher risk of getting mental disorder, or easily access to alcohol and drugs to overcome their current issue. As the lowest possibility to the influences toward commit suicide is mass media where may be down to the reason that people may tend to learn from the drama or movie with related to suicide cases.
The bar graph above shows that, all the races do agree with the point of view that most of the people who commit suicide are because of relationship issue. Current flow that showing a very obvious example of committing suicide caused by relationship issue which is the case of Alviss Kong. Before he commits suicide, he leaved the last message stated that his failure in love relationship with his girlfriend. He felt that he had nothing else to give him motivation to continue to stay alive. Most of the suicidal that because of relationship issue will tend to look in their relationship as a very important factor to stay alive.
In another point of view for all the suicide among seniors in suggested risk factors such as including unemployment, isolation, poor health, pain, depression, alcoholism, low self-esteem, feeling rejected a history of mental illness, and previous suicide attempts (NSRM, 2008). As a result, most of the late middle-age people will face the financial problem due to unemployment and lack of self confidence. Question 5: Generally how Malaysian commits suicide?
In this question, we ask the participants to rank the method of commit suicide from the most frequently used to the most rarely used based on their opinions. First, we will look for the data by different opinion between both genders. According to the data we collect, both genders, which are male and female, got the same opinion that the Malaysians will always use jumping from height to suicide, then followed by wrist cutting. The participants from both genders also ranked that self-immolation is the most rarely method use in suicide in Malaysia.
Then we collect the data and divide it based on the races. We found out that, in most participants, no matter what race they are, also think that jumping from height is the most frequently used method to suicide in Malaysia. Many of Chinese participants chose to believe that the second frequently used method to suicide is by overdose on medicine, which is a totally different from other race, which they think this method is rare method among Malaysian. Except for Indian participant, other race think that the self immolation method still is the rarest method that used in Malaysia.
Most of the participant, regarding of their race and gender, also think that jumping from height is the most common used method to suicide in Malaysia. From our searching, we found out that the jumping from height method is the second frequently used method besides hanging (National Suicide Registry Malaysia, 2007). This maybe is because the media influence, which the newspaper always got report or news that people suicide and died, for example Alviss Kong case which the method he used is exactly jumping from height, this somehow influence participant got deep impression in it.
Chinese participants mostly chose the taking of overdose on medicine is the second frequently used method for suicide in Malaysia, which we interpret that is because the Chinese normally will try the most relaxing or less painful way to suicide when compared to other races. Question 6: How to prevent people from commit suicide in Malaysia?
Based on the chart, the highest respond comes towards the best way to prevent from commit suicide is share a problem with friends. 42 people support towards share a problem with a friend as the best way to prevent from commit suicide. It includes 15 males and 27 females. The second highest way rank to 40 people who sound off that meet a counselor is the best way. 23 males and 17 females give a respond towards it. The least response agreed with mass media is 7 people which are 5 males and 2 females.
Based from the graph, we can conclude that, the races that support the most towards the way by meeting a counselor as the best way to prevent from commit suicide is Chinese and Indians. Both showing 15 peoples and followed by Malay and others with the same value or amount of people that is 5 people. Most of the Chinese support towards share a problem with a friends as the best way to prevents from commit suicide and followed by Indian who more to meet a counselor as the best way. It show 50% of them support towards it. Less people supported that mass media is the best way to prevent commit suicide. It shows the range of 4 Chinese, 2 Indians, 4 Malays and 1 from other races. Question 7: Do you think euthanasia is considered as commit suicide?
The pie chart above show that, 40% of the male students and 24% of female students think that euthanasia is considered as commit suicide. However, 60% of male students and 76% of female students think that euthanasia is not considered as commit suicide. From this pie chart, we can say that most of the students do not agree that euthanasia is considered as commit suicide. It is because they think euthanasia is ways to help those patients that are suffer from the pain to feel relief.
The graph shows that most of the UTAR students from different races think that euthanasia is not considered as commit suicide. The graph also shows that just few of the students think that euthanasia is considered as commit suicide. There have 16 Chinese students, 9 Indian students, 4 Malay students and 7 other races students think that euthanasia is considered as commit suicide.
Chapter 4: Discussion
The findings on this topic are based on the genders and the races among adolescents and adults in Malaysia. The surveys done among UTAR students
show that woman has the highest probability among gender while Chinese has the highest risks among races in exposure to commit suicide, while age range between 17-26 has higher rate compared to others. The conditions that caused people have the intensity to commit suicide are mostly related to the relationship issue and financial problem and the common ways used to commit suicide are jumping from the height and wrist cutting. The ways that suggested by the respondents are to share their problems with friends or family, and refer to psychiatrist or counselor.
Most of the participants do not think that euthanasia is considered as commit suicide. They also agreed that people who commit suicide have low Emotional Quotient (EQ) and agreed that most of the suicidal who want to commit suicide are because of feeling helpless or hopeless. Most of the results show similarities to our research except for the gender, races and age in which we found out that most of the research showed that man (gender) and Indian (races) have the highest tendency to commit suicide. And some research also showed that middle-aged and elderly persons have the high suicide rate. (Hayati & Kamarul, 2008)
The problems that we faced during the research are mostly due to the time and cost. The time for us to do the research is too short because of the holidays, and some of the group members who came from STPM background have not expose to the introduction to psychology, the style of APA citation and the method to do an assignment. Hence, a lot of effort and time are used by the group members to understand the APA style and the way of doing assignment. Besides, we also faced the problems on transportation and the places of each members currently staying as some of the members stayed at different areas. The printing of the survey forms and the assignment cost a lot for students as they are not working and might be causing a burden for them especially for those that are from poor family. The other problem that we faced during the research is some of the participants may not serious when they were filling the survey form, fear to tell the truth, or do not have enough information about the topic caused us could not get accurate results.
One of the suggestion from the group members is the time to hand up the assignment can be delay until the end of the week (Friday) so that the members have enough time to gather around to discuss and make a summary together as the members can only meet at the campus to make discussion. Another suggestion is students should be exposed to the introduction to psychology and APA format for the Year One Semester One students as they are still new and do not have much information to this field. Besides that, two sets of questionnaire can be printed into one piece of A4 paper and cut into half. This method is not can save the cost, but also can reduce the number of paper used. Lastly, the students should be informed and advised to take the survey seriously as their opinions are very important and can affect the results of the survey.
Allan, G. (2009). Elementary statistics. McGraw-Hill Higher Education Chris, G. (n.d). Age, gender, and suicide: A cross-national analysis, 553-574. Retrieved February 12, 2011, from JSTOR online database Hayati and Aziz, (2008). National Suicide Registry Malaysia: preliminary report July-December 2007, 1-27. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM) Hayati and Kamarul, (2008). National Suicide Registry Malaysia, 50-54. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from National Suicide Registry Malaysia (NSRM) Murad, M. (2005). Suicide prevention and developing countries, 459-463. Retrieved February 8, 2011, from Journal of the royal society of medicine Quinney, (1963). Suicide, Homicide and economic development, 401-406. Retrieved February 12, 2011, from JSTOR online database
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