1. In the United States, the significant change represented by the Supreme Court’s decisions concerning Dred Scott (1857) and Brown v. Board of Education (1954) best illustrates the
* ability of government to revise tax laws.
* desire of minority groups to be recognized.
* disappearance of prejudice and discrimination.
* continuing struggle of African Americans to achieve equality. 2. The United States Supreme Court decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) was important because it * strengthened the determination of abolitionists to achieve their goals. * caused the immediate outbreak of the Civil War.
* ended the importation of slaves into the United States. * increased the power of Congress to exclude slavery from the territories.
3. Which issues were controversial in national politics during the period 1800–1850? * racial prejudice, territorial expansion, immigration policy * tariff policy, nullification, rights of neutrals
* regulation of railroads, overseas acquisitions, federal income tax policy * states’ rights policy, control of the Northwest Territory, recognition of United States independence by France 4. Which statement best reflects the political philosophy of Alexander Hamilton regarding the power of a federal government? * The government which governs least governs best.
* The central government should cede most of its authority to local governments. * The government may exercise all powers necessary and proper to meet its responsibilities. * The executive branch may exercise only those powers specifically given to it by the Supreme Court. 5. The executive branch of the United States government has traditionally gained power during periods when * the presidency has been occupied by a high-ranking military officer. * the Republican Party was in the majority in Congress and the President was a Democrat. * there has been a serious domestic or international problem facing the United States. * the Supreme Court and Congress have been in conflict over constitutional issues.
6. Actions and policies of the government under President George Washington generally resulted in the * establishment of strong political ties with other nations. * liberation of many enslaved persons. * failure to create a sound financial program for the country. * strengthening of the federal government.
7. The significance of the case Marbury v. Madison (1803) is that it * established the principle of judicial review. * declared the Alien and Sedition Acts to be legitimate laws. * demonstrated the supremacy of the national government over the states. * attempted to place the judiciary outside the impeachment power of the House of Representatives.
8. Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court
* stimulated the States rights movement by supporting the idea that states could reject acts of Congress. * helped create a sense of national unity by strengthening the federal government. * weakened the judiciary by refusing to deal with controversial issues. * became heavily involved in foreign affairs.
9. In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine was established mainly because the United States wanted to
* keep control of Alaska and Hawaii. * establish more colonies in Latin America. * support England’s attempt to keep its empire in Central America. * warn Europe against any further colonization in Latin America. 10. Which means for redressing grievances is applicable to American Indians but is usually not applicable to other minority groups? nonviolent marches to draw attention to injustices equal educational and employment opportunity laws * economic boycott of all products manufactured in the United States * collective lawsuits to recover ancestral lands
11. Adherence to a strict interpretation of the Constitution would have prevented President Thomas Jefferson from
* making the Louisiana Purchase.
* writing the “State of the Union” messages.
* receiving ambassadors.
* commissioning military officers.
12. In the United States, third-party movements occur most often when
* there is clear danger of foreign attack. * the President is inconsistent in foreign policy. * major political parties ignore vital public interests. * interests in overseas trade and possessions intensifies. 13. The main goal of the Seneca Falls Convention (1848) was to * obtain equal rights for women. * make the public aware of environmental problems. * correct the abuses of big business. * organize the first labor union in the United States.
14. Once an amendment has been added to the United States Constitution, which process must be used to change that amendment? * ratifying a new amendment * convincing states to ignore the amendment * having Congress pass a law repealing the amendment * having the President issue an executive order canceling the amendment 15. During the period 1820–1860, the major concerns in the United States dealt with issues related to * determining the future of slavery. * increasing public funding of political campaigns. * decreasing the number of elective offices. * decreasing voter registration drives.
16. The constitutional amendment reading: “The right of citizens of the United States who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.” restricted the * reserved powers of the States. * delegated powers of Congress. * powers assumed by the Supreme Court. * powers retained by the people.
17. Before the Civil War, one example of increased democracy was the
* elimination of property ownership as a requirement for voting in national elections. * granting of the right to vote to women. * elimination of the electoral college system for electing the President. * extension of suffrage to most African Americans.
18. In 1794, President George Washington sent Federal troops into western Pennsylvania to deal with an uprising known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The significance of President Washington’s action is that it
* strengthened the power of local and state governments. * forced Congress to pass the Bill of Rights. * showed the strength of the Federal Government under the Constitution. * weakened the power of the Federal Government to collect sales taxes. 19. Which statement about the westward movement in the United States during the nineteenth century is most accurate? * The frontier discouraged interest in the expansion of voting rights. * The frontier experience tended to decrease social class difference. * Western expansion slowed the rate of industrialization. * The West was settled mostly by immigrants from Asian nations. 20. At the beginning of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln maintained that the war was being fought to * uphold national honor. * prevent foreign involvement. * free all slaves. * preserve the Union.
21. In the period between 1820 and 1860, Southerners wanted slavery extended to the Western territories so that the South could
* continue to elect Southern Presidents. * continue to dominate the Supreme Court. * keep enough strength in the Senate to protect Southern interests. * use slave labor to expand Southern industries.
22. A similarity between the pre-Civil War abolitionist movement and the Progressive movement is that both
* were mainly concerned with improving the status of African Americans. * worked to reduce income taxes. * contributed directly to the start of a major war. * sought to improve the conditions of poor or oppressed peoples.
23. In the United States, the widespread disregard of the fugitive slave laws and of the Prohibition laws most clearly indicated that
* strongly held values are difficult to regulate. * the federal government is generally unable to enforce its own laws. * little respect is given to the legal system. * the judicial system is too lenient in its treatment of offenders. 24. Alexander Hamilton believed that a major role of the Federal Government was to * establish and control public schools. * support and encourage business and industry. * promote the superiority of the agrarian way of life. * limit its activities by allowing the states to make important national decisions.
25. Which statement about the results of the Civil War is most accurate? * Federal supremacy was strengthened.* Constitutional government was proven ineffective. * Universal suffrage was generally accepted. * Sectional disputes ceased to exist.
26. Alexander Hamilton’s argument that the government has the power to create a National Bank is based on which part of the Constitution?
* the Preamble
* the elastic clause
* guarantees to the States
* the Bill of Rights
27. The Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall was similar to the Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren in that both
* strengthened the power and influence of business.
* increased the President’s war powers.
* changed public policy through broad interpretation of the Constitution. * increased the rights of the accused under the fifth and sixth amendments.
28. In the United States during the late 1780s, the Federalists were most likely to support
* continued loyalty to the British Government.
* establishment of a weak national government.
* strengthening of States rights.
* ratification of the United States Constitution.
29. The tariff issue of 1828, the secession of the Southern states in the 1860s, and school desegregation in the 1950s dealt with the constitutional issue of
* the federal-state relationship.
* popular sovereignty.
* checks and balances.
* representation in Congress.
30. The legal basis for the United States purchase of the Louisiana Territory was the
* power granted to the President to make treaties.
* President’s power as Commander in Chief.
* authority of Congress to declare war.
* Senate’s duty to approve the appointment of ambassadors.
31. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott were best noted for their struggle to
* prohibit the manufacture and sale of alcohol.
* abolish slavery.
* secure the right of women to vote.
* expose government corruption.
32. The reason for ending the importation of enslaved persons to the United States after 1807 was the
* success of the American colonial revolution against Britain.
* rapid industrialization of the South.
* replacement of slave labor by immigrant workers from eastern Europe.
* passage of legislation that forbids the practice.
33. The power relationship that changed most as a result of the Civil War was the increase in the power of the
* individual over the state.
* military over the civilian population.
* Congress over the President.
* Federal Government over the states.
34. Which event was the immediate cause of the secession of several Southern states from the Union in 1860? * the Dred Scott decision, which declared that all prior compromises on the extension of slavery into the territories were unconstitutional * the Missouri Compromise, which kept an even balance between the number of free and slave states * the raid on the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, which was led by the militant abolitionist John Brown * the election of President Abraham Lincoln, who opposed the spread of slavery into the territories 35. Which long-term tradition finally became part of the United States Constitution through an amendment? * the two-party system* the appointment of a Presidential Cabinet * restricting the President to two terms of office * the election of Federal judges